mercoledì, Dicembre 1, 2021

DEFENSE INNOVATION UNIT (USA) E L’INTELLIGENZA ARTIFICIALE

Diario geostrategico,  24/25 novembre 2021

Buona lettura ! 

 

The Science of Where Magazine’s interviews:

– Towards sustainable AI. The Science of Where Magazine meets Abhishek Gupta, Founder and Principal Researcher, Montreal AI Ethics Institute

– The road to the “new normal” and the role of the G20. The Science of Where meets Priyadarshi Dash. Associate Professor at Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS), New Delhi, he has 14 years of experience in policy research on trade, investment, infrastructure and fintech issues in the context of G20, IORA, BIMSTEC and Indo-Pacific

– Governo dei dati tra geopolitica e tutela del cittadino. The Science of Where Magazine incontra Ivana Bartoletti, Global Chief Privacy Officer a WIPRO Technologies e Visiting Policy Fellow presso l’ Università di Oxford

– Tecnologia e responsabilità: uno snodo decisivo. The Science of Where Magazine incontra Federico Cabitza, Università di Milano-Bicocca

– Inside the ethics of artificial intelligence: for a decentralized approach. The Science of Where Magazine meets James Brusseau, Philosopher, Pace University

– L’intelligenza artificiale contro le discriminazioni sul lavoro. The Science of Where Magazine incontra Keith Sonderling, Commissioner del U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

– Per Italia e Germania, il futuro è nelle nuove tecnologie. Intervista esclusiva con l’Ambasciatore d’Italia a Berlino, Armando Varricchio

– Gathering strenght, gathering storms. Visions on artificial intelligence. The Science of Where Magazine meets Michael Littman and Peter Stone

Today’s Choice

– Nathan Strout, Defense News:  The Defense Innovation Unit has published new directives for how it plans to use the Pentagon’s recently adopted “Responsible AI Guidelines” in its commercial prototyping and acquisition efforts. “DIU’s RAI Guidelines provide a step-by-step framework for AI [artificial intelligence] companies, DoD [Department of Defense] stakeholders, and program managers that can help to ensure that AI programs align with the DoD’s Ethical Principles for AI and that fairness, accountability and transparency are considered at each step in the development cycle of an AI system,” Jared Dunnmon, technical director of the AI and machine learning portfolio at DIU, said in a statement. – Defense Innovation Unit publishes ethical AI guidelines

Afghanistan

– Laila Bushra, East Asia Forum: The Taliban’s first stint in power from 1996–2001 was an unqualified tragedy for Afghanistan and the rest of the world. It saw thousands of people dead, widespread destruction, and graphic scenes of violence before the ushering in of the first ‘forever’ war of this century. Will their return bring more tragedy or is it a mere farce? – Is the Taliban takeover a tragedy or a farce?

Australia

– Sam Goldsmith, The Strategist: Picking the right design for the Royal Australian Navy’s nuclear-powered submarines is extraordinarily complex and difficult choices will need to be made. There are two contenders, the Royal Navy’s Astute-class submarine and the US Navy’s Virginia-class submarine, which refers to the ‘Block V’ variant of the boat. – Astute versus Virginia: which nuclear-powered sub is the best fit for Australia?

– Michael Shoebridge, John Coyne, Rajiv Shah, The Strategist: At the time of the review of Australia’s intelligence agencies in 2017, extremism, state and non-state actors, climate change and technological change were all parts of the operating environment, along with rising competition between states. Covid-19 was in our future. The digital world was providing a challenge to intelligence communities through the pace of technological change and the volumes of data available outside the classified world. – Strengthening intelligence collaboration in Australia: lessons from the UK and the US

Australia-ASEAN-Southeast Asia

– M Niaz Asadullah, The Strategist: Covid-19 has disrupted labour markets around the world, causing a global manpower shortage. Lockdowns in the early months of the pandemic triggered an exodus of millions of rural migrant workers from booming megacities like New Delhi and Dhaka. In the global north, the United Kingdom has experienced the largest decline in its foreign-born labour force since World War II. ASEAN countries have also been affected: Vietnam’s labour shortage recently worsened after the easing of travel restrictions in Ho Chi Minh City led to a large outflow of migrant workers. – Australia’s ASEAN worker scheme and Southeast Asia’s migrant labour dilemma

Belarusians

– RFE/RL: Exiled Belarusian opposition leader Svyatlana Tsikhanouskaya has called on the European Union to do more to help Belarusians, whom she called “forgotten Europeans,” in their fight for freedom. Speaking at the European Parliament on November 24, Tsikhanouskaya talked about the arrest and incarceration of opposition politicians and activists in Belarus. – Tsikhanouskaya Urges The EU To Do More For Belarusians, The ‘Forgotten Europeans’

Belarus-Poland

– Arwa Ibrahim, Al Jazeera: Ali has been held at a detention centre in Lithuania along with six members of his family since they fled southern Iraq in July. The 45-year-old is among thousands of people – mainly from the Middle East – who made their way to Belarus over the summer in hope of reaching the European Union. – What next for the refugees stranded between Belarus and Poland?

China-USA

– Rep. Rob Wittman, Defense News: On Dec. 25, 1991, the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin and replaced with the new flag of Russia. The world breathed a collective sigh of relief. Behind us were the days of the “duck and cover” drills — the exercise in anxiety that Americans conducted for decades. The bipolar world of competing nuclear titans gave way to the unipolar world we enjoy today. – Countering China’s nuclear threat: The cost to play is cheaper than the cost of sitting out

Climate Action

– Johan Rockström, Tobias Raffel, Project-Syndicate: What is next on the global climate agenda? This year’s United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) in Glasgow certainly did not fail, but nor was it much of a success. While world leaders entered into some promising new agreements on targets, global greenhouse-gas emissions so far are not being reduced at the pace we need. And while some countries’ climate pledges have been strengthened, the lack of concrete measures for achieving them is a real worry. We still see a yawning policy gap. – Green Business After COP26

– Mark John, Reuters: From laying down the law on fossil fuel subsidies to promoting low-carbon supply chains, there is no shortage of ways in which the World Trade Organization could be at the forefront of the global fight against climate change. – Analysis: Big climate change job awaits WTO – if it can step up

Colombia

– UN News: The signing of the Final Peace Agreement five years ago generated hope and inspiration in Colombia and throughout the international community, and UN Secretary-General António Guterres said on Wednesday that the achievements are undeniable, and the country’s people should be proud. – Colombia’s peace process is taking ‘deep roots’, but all sides must work together to overcome lingering challenges

Ethiopia

– UN News: With the dire humanitarian situation in Tigray, Ethiopia, continuing to deteriorate, it is critical to establish a regular flow of humanitarian aid into the region, the Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General said on Wednesday.  – Ethiopia: Humanitarian aid needed as situation deteriorates in Tigray

Germany

– Marcus Colla, The Interpreter: “Today is essentially Christmas and a birthday in one for you, and yet you seem about as euphoric as an English butler at teatime,” remarked an astonished television interviewer to Olaf Scholz on the evening of his election as mayor of Hamburg in 2011. It was a characteristic performance by the man known as the “Scholzomat” for his mechanical, austere and laconic communication style. – The revenge of the Scholzomat (lowyinstitute.org)

India-China

– Aarti Betigeri, The Interpreter: Two weeks of negotiations in Glasgow meant that COP26 resulted in a resolution – of sorts. Nations agreed to resume next year with stronger 2030 emissions reduction targets in a global bid to try to alleviate the worst consequences of the climate disaster. It wasn’t the achievement that was hoped for, but it was better than nothing, was the reasoned conclusion by many observers. – India, China and finger pointing climate politics

Indonesia

– Taufik Rachmat Nugraha, The Interpreter: According to the Indonesia Ocean Justice Initiative, between 2018 and January 2021, a large number of Chinese vessels “deactivated” their AIS transponders – the automatic identification systems used to track ships at sea – and engaged in illegal marine scientific research while cruising inside Indonesian waters. Chinese ships even released unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), with some of these drones apparently malfunctioning and later discovered by locals while fishing. – Regulating unmanned underwater vehicles in Indonesian waters

Iran-USA

– Javad Heiran-Nia, Atlantic Council: Iranian experts in Tehran see the Joe Biden administration’s approach toward Iran and the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) in the context of his government’s overall foreign policy and its desire to extricate itself from military conflicts in the Persian Gulf. – How Iran sees the Biden doctrine for the JCPOA and Persian Gulf

Italy-France

– Melvyn B. Krauss, Project-Syndicate: Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi and French President Emmanuel Macron are on track to sign a bilateral accord – the so-called Quirinale Treaty named after the Roman palace – designed to boost their countries’ industrial and strategic cooperation. But this new Paris-Rome power axis may do much more than that as it may very well alter the leadership dynamic within the entire European Union. – The New Franco-Italian Alliance in Europe

Latin America

– Mariana Prandini Assis, Project-Syndicate: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Latin American governments took the unprecedented step of including informal workers in emergency relief legislation. Informal workers comprise a significant share of Latin American countries’ economically active population, ranging from 23.9% in Uruguay to 82.6% in Honduras, and they have been among those hardest hit by the pandemic. Their inclusion in the pandemic response thus seemed like a harbinger of progress. But, on closer inspection, the move highlighted the unintended consequences of failing to consult with those most affected by legislation before it is enacted. – Informal Workers Need More than Legal Recognition

Libya

– UN News: With one month left until elections in Libya, it is important that the international community remains united in support of the process, UN Special Envoy Ján Kubiš told the Security Council on Wednesday. – Libya at ‘delicate and critical juncture’ ahead of landmark elections: UN envoy

Maldives-India

– David Brewster, The Interpreter: Recent protests in Maldives against India’s influence in the country calling for “Indian military out” has led the Maldives government to respond by reiterating its “India First” policy. This has highlighted the difficulties that both countries face in building a stable strategic partnership while also addressing popular sensitivities. It’s not something that India has been good at elsewhere in the neighbourhood. – Maldives: India first or India out?

Morocco-Israel

– Al Jazeera: Israel and Morocco have signed a landmark agreement that lays the foundation for security cooperation, intelligence sharing, and future arms sales. The memorandum of understanding between Israeli Defense Minister Benny Gantz and his Moroccan counterpart Abdellatif Loudiyi was signed on Wednesday in Rabat, as part of the first official visit by an Israeli defence minister to one of the Arab states that normalised ties last year. – Morocco, Israel sign first-ever defence agreement in Rabat

NATO

– Hans Binnendijk, Julian Lindley-French: The NATO Parliamentary Assembly meets next week in Washington to discuss the alliance’s redraft of its 2010 Strategic Concept, and the agenda is loaded with relatively new missions. Protecting against cyber attacks, hybrid warfare, the Chinese challenge, terrorism, and global warming indeed all need to be part of NATO’s expanding mission. But traditional collective defense remains the top priority, and that needs to be reflected in the new Strategic Concept, which will be drafted next year. – Prioritize NATO’s core task: collective defense

Palestine

– UN News: Following Israeli closures, restrictions and military operations, the West Bank has suffered two decades of arrested development and poverty, according to a report published on Wednesday by the UN trade and development body, UNCTAD. – Arrested development and poverty take a $57 billion economic toll in Palestine

Russia

– Erin Pobjie, Just Security: Russia’s unannounced direct-ascent anti-satellite (DA-ASAT) missile test last Monday raises important legal and policy questions about the prohibition on the use of force in outer space. The highly destructive weapons test – which forced astronauts aboard the International Space Station to seek shelter and created a long-lasting field of space debris – underscores the need to urgently develop international standards for responsible behavior in space. – The Threat from Outer Space: Russia Tests Kinetic DA-ASAT Weapon

– Angelina Davydova, BBC: The small West Siberian city of Khanty-Mansiysk, home to just over 100,000 people, is Russia’s unofficial capital of oil. The town is surrounded by some of the most extensive oilfields in the world, which shape not only the region’s geology but its economy and identity. The relatively short history of oil in Khanty-Mansiysk has transformed this part of Russia. The Samotlor oil field, Russia’s largest, was discovered in the 1960s to the east of the city and fast became the source of the area’s considerable wealth. Khanty-Mansiysk sits within the Tyumen region, which often ranks second in Russia for wellbeing and socioeconomic development, after only Moscow. – Will Russia ever leave fossil fuels behind?

USA

– Bradley Bowman, Hussain Abdul-Hussain, Defense News: A fight is brewing within the Democratic party over whether to permit the sale of defensive air-to-air missiles to Saudi Arabia. The Biden administration’s State Department approved the sale of 280 AIM-120C missiles to Riyadh, but a far-left group of members in the House of Representatives, led by Rep. Ilhan Omar, D-Minn., introduced legislation on Nov. 12 to block the sale. Refusing to provide even defensive missiles to Saudi Arabia will not only damage U.S. relations with a valuable security partner, make it harder for the kingdom to defend itself against drone attacks by Iranian-supported Houthi terrorists, and incentivize Riyadh to acquire weapons from suppliers such as Russia or China; it will also worsen the conflict in Yemen, which is the primary cause of the horrible humanitarian crisis there. – Congress should support the Biden administration’s effort to sell defensive missiles to Saudi Arabia

– Anne O. Krueger, Project-Syndicate: Among former US President Donald Trump’s many policy mistakes, some of the worst were in the area of trade. His administration’s sweeping tariffs on imported steel and aluminum were neither sensible nor even effective in achieving their stated objectives. The “trade war” with China was a spectacular failure: America’s trade deficit continued to grow, and no new agreements on intellectual property, e-commerce, or other crucial issues were ever reached. Under the much-touted “Phase One” agreement, signed in January 2020, China was forced to intensify its managed trade, rather than adopting a more market-oriented approach. – The Further Bungling of US Trade

– Alexandra Kelley, Nextgov: The Department of Homeland Security issued a request for comment for 11 proposed research topics the agency intends to pursue, with hopes that eligible small business partners will become more aware and attuned to those areas of study. The research areas were announced in a Nov. 16 pre-solicitation through Homeland’s Science and Technology Directorate Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. – Homeland Security Looking For Ideas on AI, Biological Surveillance

– Stephen Losey, Defense News: More than a year and a half after the COVID-19 pandemic began to rock supply chains around the world, the defense industry is still wrestling with its fallout — and figuring out how to move forward amid the turmoil. From massive deliveries of steel and aluminum needed to build the military’s newest ships and aircraft to landing gear brakes to items as small as semiconductors, supply chain shortages or delays have upended the plans of defense firms of all sizes. – ‘No company is immune’: Supply chain woes weigh on defense firms

– Joseph Evans, Dan Patt, Defense News: If the Pentagon wants a force that can fight jointly, it needs to abandon standards as it knows them. Since the last National Defense Strategy, senior Pentagon leaders have prioritized enhanced jointness in operations. A special focus has been data-centric digital modernization coordinated by the 150-person Cross-Functional Team for Joint All-Domain Command Control, dubbed JADC2. This CFT has focused on establishing data standards and moving toward an implementation plan. Conventional wisdom says that unless the Joint Staff establishes common standards upfront and enforces them vigorously, service weapons systems won’t be able to collaborate in operations when they finally show up in the field. – For JADC2, the Pentagon should learn from the 5G community

USA-China

– Wu Guo, ThinkChina: Before rushing to conclude that China is turning inward and isolating itself from the world with its harsh zero-Covid policy, says US academic Wu Guo, the American media should do some soul-searching themselves on how US policies and negative American attitudes towards China have led to dwindling people-to-people contact. – US academic: US-centric worldview and hostile policies hindering US-China exchanges

USA-Taiwan-China

– Chet Lee, Defense One: In recent polling, a greater share of the American public than ever supports using the U.S. military to defend Taiwan from China’s aggression. More Americans than ever believe Taiwan should become a treaty ally of the United States. But more than ever, Americans also believe the U.S. military is incapable of matching up to China’s People’s Liberation Army. – Americans Want to Defend Taiwan. The Pentagon’s Budget Should, Too

USA-UK

– Brandi Vincent, Nextgov: The Air Force Research Laboratory is engaging in a new collaboration that will provide U.S. and U.K. researchers and astronomers with one of the largest and sharpest Earth-based optical telescopes to ever operate. That sophisticated tool—the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer, or MROI—will be based in Socorro, New Mexico on a site managed by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, or NMT. – Air Force Lab, New Mexico Institute Get Set for ‘High-Powered Window to Space’

Vietnam-UK-Indo Pacific

– Bill Hayton, The Strategist: Vietnam’s prime minister, Pham Minh Chinh, made a very successful trip to the United Kingdom in early November, putting the rapidly improving relations between the two countries into the spotlight. The visit to the COP26 climate summit took place a year after Britain and Vietnam ‘refreshed’ their 10-year-old strategic partnership with a new set of bilateral commitments. Chinh was accompanied by a large delegation, and many side meetings were held with British officials and organisations. Clearly, there is interest in further developing the bilateral relationship. – Why improving Vietnam–UK relations matters for the Indo-Pacific

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