domenica, Aprile 14, 2024

AFFRONTARE LE DISUGUGLIANZE PER UN FUTURO SOSTENIBILE

FOCUS

Tra i tanti workshop in corso al World Economic Forum di Davos, un tema decisivo è il  superamento delle disuguaglianze. Over the course of the pandemic, close to 100 million people are estimated to have fallen into extreme poverty and spikes in the price of food and fuel are creating a cost-of-living crisis while the wealth of the world’s richest people has doubled. What steps can be taken to tackle inequality within countries, boost income and social mobility, and avoid global unrest? Ne hanno parlato: Madeleine von Holzen, Gabriela Bucher, Amit Stibbe, Achim Steiner (World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos)

FROM THINK TANKS

DIGITAL & TECH

  • May 25, 2022. By Ziyaad Bhorat, Brookings. Today, more than a third of the world’s population lives under authoritarian rule. Indices ranging from the Democracy Index to V-Dem to Freedom House all concur: Democracy worldwide is backsliding. At the same time, automated technology has rapidly advanced. According to the International Federation of Robotics, the global average robot density reached a record of 126 operational industrial robots per 10 0000 workers in 2021. The year prior, global corporate investment in artificial intelligence (AI) stood at $67.85 billion, a 5-year increase of over 330%. Democracy is under threat, while technologies built on automation continue a breakneck pace of development. How to democratize automation
  • May 25, 2022. By George IngramJohn W. McArthur, and Priya Vora, Brookings. Rapid shifts in digital technologies are changing the context for pursuing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In the best cases, these technologies have contributed to massive improvements in access to public services and economic opportunities for millions of people. In the worst cases, they have opened the door to new forms of government surveillance, exacerbated inequalities, and encouraged social divisions. Many private firms also have enormous influence in shaping the interface between digital technology and societal well-being. Against this backdrop, a growing movement is emphasizing the need for digital public goods and digital public infrastructure. How can digital public technologies accelerate progress on the Sustainable Development Goals?

AROUND THE WORLD

Belarus

  • May 25, 2022. By Grigory Ioffe, The Jamestown Foundation. According to a January 2022 forecast published by the World Bank, the Belarusian economy would contract by 2.8 percent over the course of the year. But in April, the international financial institution sharply revised down its estimate to a drop of 6.5 percent. The April forecast additionally envisages a 45.1 percent GDP collapse in war-torn Ukraine and a not-small 11.2 percent decline of the Russian economy (Intex-press, April 14). Already in the first quarter (January–April 2022), Belarus’s economic recession amounted to 2.1 percent compared to the same period in 2021. Last year, Belarus’s GDP grew by 2.3 percent; and the government in Minsk had then predicted 2.9 percent growth for 2022. However, these prognostications were made before the outbreak of Russia’s unprovoked full-scale war against Ukraine and the ensuing sanctions against both Moscow and its closest ally, Minsk. The World Bank also predicts that Belarusian exports will shrink by 14.2 percent and imports will fall by 18.8 percent (Zerkalo, May 17). Because the Belarusian economy is much more open (i.e., export-oriented) compared to Russia’s, this projected decline is nothing short of cataclysmic. The Ailing Belarusian Economy and Lukashenka’s Plea on Big Brother’s Behalf

Bulgaria

Russia – Ukraine (on the ground, impact)

  • May 25, 2022. By John R. Deni, Christopher Skaluba, Defense One. The West’s initial response to Russia’s brutal, unprovoked invasion of Ukraine has been remarkably unified and effective. The multifaceted effort to arm Ukraine while reinforcing NATO allies in Eastern Europe has helped to turn the war’s tide and prevent, for now at least, an expansion of the conflict beyond Ukrainian territory. However, Ukraine’s battlefield prowess coupled with newly revealed Russian military shortcomings are prompting some officials to suggest pumping the brakes on changes to Western defense and deterrence measures in Europe. Such suggestions indicate a dangerous underestimation of the Kremlin’s military capabilities, its capacity, and its desire to avoid a strategic setback. Abandoning these needed changes would undermine Kyiv’s successes and leave NATO’s eastern flank exposed to the horrific devastation and death seen throughout Ukraine. The West Should Not Wish Away the Russian Threat Yet Again
  • May 25, 2022. By Fozil Mashrab, The Jamestown Foundation. Russia’s large-scale re-invasion of Ukraine, which prompted the West to adopt ever-tightening economic sanctions against the aggressor, is forcing Central Asian countries to grapple with the negative fallout spilling over to their own economies. Disruptions to traditional logistical supply routes, a looming food crisis, currency fluctuations, high inflation, and the possible mass return of migrant workers from Russia to their home countries are just a few of the most prominent examples of these detrimental tendencies (Ebrd.com, March 31; see EDM, April 78192020May 18). In the absence of any meaningful assistance coming from the Russian government, regional countries are turning to the United States and the European Union for help to mitigate the negative consequences for their economies. As a result, senior Moscow officials’ hostile anti-Western rhetoric is not only falling on deaf ears in Central Asia but also causing muted irritation among regional leaders, who are increasingly dismayed by the Kremlin’s belligerent behavior in Ukraine and its seeming indifference to their own economic hardships (Amerikaovozi.com, May 24). Russia Downplays Negative Economic Impact of Ukraine War for Its Central Asian Allies
  • May 25, 2022. By Aslan Doukaev, The Jamestown Foundation. Russia’s 2022 re-invasion of Ukraine has damaged not only bilateral relations between the two majority–Eastern Slavic neighbors but also—perhaps inadvertently—destabilized ties, links, goodwill, and mutual trust between the Russian periphery and the center, on the one hand, and between certain ethnic groups within the Russian Federation, on the other. Inter-Ethnic Animosity Saps Effectiveness of Russia’s Army in Ukraine
  • May 25, 2022.  By Kateryna Stepanenko, Karolina Hird, Frederick W. Kagan, and George Barros, ISW. Some pro-Russian milbloggers on Telegram continued to criticize the Kremlin for appalling treatment of forcefully mobilized Donetsk and Luhansk People’s Republics (DNR and LNR) servicemen–contradicting Russian information campaigns about progress of the Russian special military operation.Former Russian Federal Security Service officer Igor Girkin (also known by the alias Igor Strelkov) amplified a critique to his 360,000 followers from a smaller milblogger discussing a video wherein a DNR battalion appealed to DNR Head Denis Pushilin about maltreatment of forcefully mobilized forces.[1] The milblogger blamed Russian leadership, not Pushilin, for beginning the invasion with insufficient reserves and unprepared, forcefully mobilized forces. The milblogger added that Russia did not provide the soldiers of its proxy republics with new weapons, despite claiming that Ukrainian forces prepared to attack occupied Donbas areas for a year prior to Russian invasion. The milblogger also claimed that the Kremlin failed to mobilize and adequately prepare the next batch of reserves, while Ukrainian forces are successfully preparing their troops for counteroffensives. Girkin also criticized the Kremlin for failing to pay the DNR battalion for three months. Some milbloggers claimed that Ukrainian forces staged the video, but the video still gathered attention of pro-Russian Telegram users.[2]. Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 25

Turkey

  • May 26, 2022. By HRW. According to the most recent official data, around four out of ten women in Turkey have suffered physical and/or sexual violence during their lives. Hundreds are murdered by their partners every year, even though in some cases they had reported their abusers to authorities more than once. In some cases, their deaths could possibly have been prevented, had the authorities made sure that restraining orders were respected, breaches punished, and perpetrators prosecuted, according to a new Human Rights Watch report, “Combatting Domestic Violence in Turkey: The Deadly Impact of Failure to Protect.” Birgit Schwarz speaks to Emma Sinclair-Webb, Europe and Central Asia Division associate director, about the Turkish state’s failure to provide effective protection from domestic violence, and what this means for victims. Interview: How Turkey’s Failure to Protect Women Can Cost Them Their Lives

USA – Iran

  • May 2022. By Robert Einhorn, Brookings. With almost all issues resolved, negotiations to revive the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) have gridlocked over the Iranian demand, resisted by the Biden administration, that the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) be removed from the U.S. list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs). The issue of IRGC delisting is largely symbolic, with little practical effect on economic pressures facing the organization. But it has outsized political importance in Tehran and Washington, and leaders in both capitals have been unwilling to risk the potential fallout from abandoning their positions. Although European negotiators are reportedly renewing their efforts to find a way to end the impasse, prospects for doing so are uncertain at best, and Biden administration officials have grown increasingly pessimistic that agreement will be reached to return to the JCPOA. Reviving the JCPOA is the better alternative — but can it be made sustainable?

DEFENSE – MILITARY – CYBER – SPACE

WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM

  • May 24, 2022. By Tonia Mastrobuoni, Klaus Moosmayer, Mikaela Jade, Larry Brilliant, Anna Riedl, WEF. Recent years have seen a trend towards greater state intervention and control over citizens’ lives on public health grounds. This reflects the exceptional pressures on healthcare systems, which forced governments and medical personnel to respond swiftly to safeguard lives and livelihoods. How can leaders make ethical decisions in times of crisis to maintain social cohesion and the trust of citizens? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Matthew Murray, Seth Moulton, Gina Raimondo, Thomas Donilon, Anne-Marie Slaughter, WEF. The United States was already facing a challenging external environment before the invasion of Ukraine struck at the foundations of the post-war international order. With signs that a return to war in Europe has galvanized the West, how should the US defend and promote its political and economic interests at a time of deepening geopolitical uncertainty? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Ngaire Woods, Jane Nelson, Jo Taylor, Johan H. Andresen, Inderpreet Sawhney, WEF. While a significant focus on climate change is influencing global investment priorities, responsible and sustainable governance remains essential to ensuring a just economic recovery. What actions and meaningful approaches will empower investors to take a holistic approach to sustainable governance so that integrity is incorporated in their strategic decisions?  World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Rahul Kanwal, Arancha Gonzalez Laya, Reta Jo Lewis, Helena Leurent, Cenk Alper, WEF. While trade has lifted millions out of poverty, it has also led to labour upheavals, social downgrading and harms to local communities in some contexts. How can trade policy better serve all sections of society by supporting decent work, human rights and diversity? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Sally Buzbee, Ebru Özdemir, Asheesh Advani, Judith Wiese, WEF. Investments in workplace learning have accelerated in the context of the global pandemic and the need to rapidly acquire skills to navigate a digital and hybrid world, and both individuals and businesses are reaping the benefits. How do we continue to leverage and scale the full potential of workplace learning? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Michael Casey, Denelle Dixon, Brett Harrison, Lauren Woodman, Robert Wardrop, Anthony Scaramucci, WEF. Bitcoin consumes about 62 terawatt hours of energy a year, and cryptocurrency energy consumption is frequently compared to that of sovereign nations. As the climate debate on crypto nears a pivotal juncture, how can this increasingly popular technology potentially accelerate progress towards environmental sustainability goals? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Marco Lambertini, Jessica Cheam, Laurent Freixe, Lea Wermelin, Joshua Amponsem, Gustavo Manrique Miranda, Espen Barth Eide, WEF. With 175 governments endorsing a United Nations resolution for a legally binding treaty, the world is set for a landmark global agreement by 2024 to address the full life cycle of plastic products and tackle the plastic pollution crisis. What will it take to collectively craft a meaningful, timely and effective global treaty?  World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Steve Sedgwick, Erin Fitzgerald, Ibrahim Thiaw, David MacLennan, WEF. The food and land-use system represents about 12% of global GDP and up to 40% of employment, yet widespread disruption to global food supply and unsustainable management is putting biodiversity, critical ecosystems, human health and nutrition and the livelihoods of billions at risk. How can industry, farmers and governments work together to confront supply chain disruptions, difficult trade-offs and explore the transitions needed to meet the competing objectives of food and climate security, health, environmental protection and resilient rural livelihoods? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Fareed Zakaria, Pekka Haavisto, Mikael Damberg, WEF. For Sweden and Finland, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine created a “before and after 24 February”. After 75 years of political non-alignment, both countries are now pursuing NATO membership. What are the consequences for NATO and Europe as a whole? And how are other countries in the region adjusting their geosecurity position? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Stephanie Mehta, Peter Sands, Bill Gates, Francis deSouza, Helen E. Clark, Paul Kagame, WEF. Roughly one novel human pathogen emerges every year and any one of them could turn out to be the next pandemic. How can the public and private sectors work together to protect lives and livelihoods? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Elena Cherney, Andy Brown, Ignacio S. Galán, Mads Nipper, Elizabeth Gaines, WEF. Getting on track to net-zero emissions by 2050 will require annual investment in clean energy infrastructure to reach nearly $4 trillion by 2030. The goal is an integrated energy future, which comprises an economy fuelled by 50%-80% clean electrification, plus green hydrogen, clean fuels, nuclear, and carbon capture, utilization and storage. In a radically different system, how can the economy and companies transform at the required speed? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Andriy Yermak, Francine Lacqua, Alexander De Croo, Stevo Pendarovski, Kajsa Ollongren, Jens Stoltenberg, WEF. The war in Ukraine has united the European Union around a common threat while shattering the security order that helped Europe to prosper in peace for decades. What steps does Europe need to take to develop into a viable security player in this radically changed context? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Nzinga Qunta, Ambrosie B. Orjiako, Phuthi Mahanyele-Dabengwa, Patrick Achi, WEF. Africa is the youngest and fastest-growing continent. By 2035, more young Africans will enter the workforce each year than in the rest of the world combined, which brings huge opportunities, but major challenges too. How can leaders across Africa prepare for these changes and what do they expect from the rest of the world? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Her Majesty Queen Máxima of the Netherlands, Enrique Acevedo, Hans Vestberg, Shobana Kamineni, Makhtar Diop, WEF. Current estimates suggest that between $400 billion to $2 trillion is needed to achieve universal digital inclusion. How can we mobilize private capital and foster a cooperative policy environment to generate more investment in the digital economy? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Shweta Rajpal Kohli, Cherie Nursalim, Ibrahim AlMojel, Rhea Mazumdar Singhal, Gustavo Montezano, WEF. The prolonged nature of the COVID-19 pandemic has devastated local economies worldwide, forcing millions of small businesses to permanently shut down, increasing poverty, disrupting supply chains, and fuelling uncertainty throughout all industries. With small and medium-sized enterprises accounting for 7 out of 10 new jobs created, how can governments and businesses come together to help support and build the capacity of this crucial segment of the economy? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Haslinda Amin, Hina Rabbani Khar, Salman F. Rahman, Rajan Anandan, Hari S. Bhartia, WEF. Despite high growth in South Asia, the economic recovery has been uneven across countries and sectors. What intra-regional policies and measures may ensure collective prosperity to address priority challenges such as poverty, food security and climate action? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Aron Cramer, Douglas McCauley, Katherine Garrett-Cox, Carlos Eduardo Correa Escaf, WEF. Coastal wetlands sequester carbon dioxide 400% more rapidly than tropical rainforests and account for approximately half of the total ocean-based carbon removal, playing a critical role in climate change mitigation. While the benefits of mangrove restoration and conservation could outweigh the costs by 3:1, the supply of blue carbon credits is still lacking. What action is required to fully unleash the economic potential of blue carbon and maximize its impact? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Sarah Kate Ellis, Asha Kharga, Sander van ’t Noordende, Amit Paley, Christiana Riley, WEF. In an era of concurrent global crises, all marginalized communities are at risk. With anti-LGBTQI+ rhetoric rising in some parts of the world, how can business and government work together to mainstream inclusivity so that LGBTQI+ communities are more resilient? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Klaus Schwab, Satya Nadella, WEF. A conversation with Microsoft Chief Executive Officer Satya Nadella. World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Alem Tedeneke, Roshni Nadar Malhotra, Inna Modja, William Kwende, Punit Renjen, Gim Huay Neo, Marc Benioff, WEF. Join this press conference to hear directly from the visionary leaders who are driving UpLink forward, and discover why their investment in water resilience, tree conservation, and “ecopreneurs” can significantly accelerate the delivery of the SDGs and drive transformational change across the globe. World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Francine Lacqua, Pedro Sánchez, Anna Borg, Frans Timmermans, Ester Baiget, Gitanas Nausėda, WEF. The war in Ukraine has highlighted the vulnerability of European Union energy supplies and underlined the importance of the energy transition to Europe’s energy security. In this radical new context, what role can the European Green Deal play in strengthening the EU’s geopolitical position in the world? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Enrique Acevedo, Francis Suarez, Sheila Warren, WEF. Crypto has had a roller coaster two years, with many coins multiplying in value in 2020-2021, only to lose much of the gains in the past month. Miami in that same time span became a crypto hot spot. What does the future look like for crypto and one of its fastest-growing hubs? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By  Alessandra Galloni, Nikhil Kamath, John Graham, Lynn Martin, Kai-Fu Lee, WEF. The 2021 Global Innovation Index found that investment in innovation has remain relatively resilient during the pandemic. As key global trends like digitalization and green technology continue to accelerate, what are the opportunities and challenges that will shape the year ahead? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Hadley Gamble, Ahmed Nasser Al-Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Masrour Masoud Mustafa Barzani, Ayman Al Safadi, H.H. Prince Faisal bin Farhan Al Saud, WEF. World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Alyson Shontell Lombardi, Susan Wojcicki, WEF. A conversation with YouTube Chief Executive Officer Susan Wojcicki. World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Andrew Steer, Roshni Nadar Malhotra, Kahea Pacheco, Jim Andrew, Ani Dasgupta, WEF. Nature-based solutions can provide one-third of the mitigation needed to reach a 1.5C pathway by 2030, at lower costs than technological solutions while offering substantial co-benefits for people and the planet. What is needed to ramp up socially and ecologically responsible corporate investment in nature? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Urs Gredig, Yuriy Vitrenko, Nadia Murad, Ignazio Cassis, Ievgeniia Bodnya, WEF. The war in Ukraine has shaken the geopolitical landscape in Europe and beyond and has highlighted the difficulty of achieving international unity in response to conflict. What can leaders do to foster peace and security and to forge consensus in response to this and other wars? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Marisol Argueta de Barillas, Ivan Duque, Luis Rodolfo Abinader Corona, Rodrigo Chaves Robles, Dina Ercilia Boluarte, WEF. Latin America continues to be affected by social unrest and economic challenges against a backdrop of political polarization and policy uncertainty. How can leaders in the region mend political fractures and cooperate decisively to address structural weaknesses and ensure long-term prosperity? World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos
  • May 24, 2022. By Larry Hogan Jr, WEF. With the most educated workforce in the United States, world-class transportation systems, and a focus on innovation and entrepreneurship, Maryland is leading the economy of the future. Governor Larry Hogan will unveil a first-of-its-kind initiative to connect international businesses looking to enter the U.S. market with local incubators and accelerators. World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022, Davos

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