domenica, Giugno 16, 2024

QUALE FUTURO PER LA NATO?

Diario geostrategico,  29 ottobre 2021

Buona lettura ! 

 

The Science of Where Magazine’s interviews:

– Inside the ethics of artificial intelligence: for a decentralized approach. The Science of Where Magazine meets James Brusseau, Philosopher, Pace University

– L’intelligenza artificiale contro le discriminazioni sul lavoro. The Science of Where Magazine incontra Keith Sonderling, Commissioner del U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

– Per Italia e Germania, il futuro è nelle nuove tecnologie. Intervista esclusiva con l’Ambasciatore d’Italia a Berlino, Armando Varricchio

– Gathering strenght, gathering storms. Visions on artificial intelligence. The Science of Where Magazine meets Michael Littman and Peter Stone

 Today’s Choice:

– Agneska Bloch and James Goldgeier, BrookingsThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has evolved considerably since the end of the Cold War — taking on emerging threats like transnational terrorism and piracy, and venturing into new arenas such as cybersecurity and space. Today, two new issues are rising fast on NATO’s agenda, despite neither fitting comfortably into the mission of an alliance founded to address a direct military threat to Europe: China and climate change. – Finding the right role for NATO in addressing China and climate change

 Africa:

– Tamara White, BrookingsOn September 18, the African Union, in collaboration with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) released the report, “Transforming Education in Africa”, an evidence-based overview of education in the region. The report highlights progress the continent has made on education indicators, such as participation rates, while also illustrating challenges that remain. As Africa has the youngest population in the world—nearly 800 million Africans are under the age of 25, with 677 million between ages 3 and 24—accelerating investment in education is vital for countries to take full benefit of their human capital. – Figure of the week: Education participation rates in Africa increase, with some caveats

 China:

– ITIFAs ITIF has documented extensively, in the nearly 20 years since China joined the World Trade Organization, it has made innovation mercantilism a defining feature of its economic growth strategy—employing a host of tactics, from forced technology and intellectual property transfers to currency and standards manipulation. But perhaps the most pernicious and damaging element of China’s innovation mercantilism has been its aggressive industrial subsidization across a range of high-tech industries, from semiconductors and solar photovoltaics to aerospace, telecommunications equipment, and biopharmaceuticals. These subsidies disrupt the economics of market-based competition, often leading to overcapacity by propping up inefficient Chinese competitors while they earn below-market rates of return, thus depriving genuine innovators that compete on market-based terms from earning the profits they need to invest in future innovation. – How China’s Subsidies Threaten Advanced-Technology Industries

 China-Afghanistan:

– Liu Caiyu, Global Times:  Chinese State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi has called on countries neighboring Afghanistan to take coordinated action to expand economic and trade exchanges with the country, stressing that more multilateral coordination and efforts are needed to help stabilize Afghanistan. Wang’s remarks were consistent with what he said in Tianjin and Doha. It is more comprehensive, which shows that China’s policies toward Afghanistan are clearer but experts said it doesn’t imply recognition of the Afghan Taliban government. – Wang Yi calls for coordinated action to expand economic exchanges with Afghanistan

 China-ASEAN:

– Global TimesMembers of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are seeking to strengthen cooperation with China on green energy and carbon markets, officials said at a roundtable on the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Green Development. – ASEAN eyes closer cooperation with China on green energy, carbon markets

 China-India:

– Global TimesIndia overreacted and made an unreasonable announcement against China’s newly adopted land border legislation, as the law is not targeted at the China-India border dispute and in line with international law, legislators told the Global Times, warning India that its paranoia and overgeneralizing the new law could set negotiations between the two countries back. – India overreacts, makes ‘unreasonable’ announcement on China’s land border law: Chinese lawmakers

 Georgia:

– Giorgi Menabde, The Jamestown FoundationOn October 25, United National Movement (UNM)—Georgia’s main opposition party, established in 2001 by former president Mikheil Saakashvili—released a statement regarding the hospitalization of its founder. In the statement, the party appeals to the international community, the diplomatic corps accredited in Georgia, and international and local non-governmental organizations (NGO) to take all possible measures to ensure the life and personal safety of the third president of Georgia, who was jailed on October 1, after returning to his homeland from Ukraine (TV Pirveli, October 25). – Saakashvili’s Hunger Strike Mobilizes Georgian Opposition

 Global Topics-Climate Change-COP26-Ecological Transition:

– Kaushik Basu, Project-SyndicateBoth anxiety and hope are increasing in the run-up to the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) in Glasgow. There is anxiety because, barring a handful of the willfully blind, we can all see the damage we are doing to the planet. Fires, floods, and rising sea levels are creating havoc around the world, while environmental destruction and the resulting conflict are triggering large-scale refugee movements that evoke biblical images. – Glasgow, Greta, and Good Intentions

 Global Topics-Cyber Security-Digital Education-Digital Health-Digital Transformation-Emerging and Disruptive Technology:

– Fabio Moioli, Agenda DigitaleLe nuove tecnologie di intelligenza artificiale offriranno un grande contributo al mondo educativo, sia dando dare i “super poteri” al mondo degli educatori e degli insegnanti, sia favorendo maggiore inclusione, che si tratti di didattica personalizzata o di accessibilità di tutti i nostri bambini e ragazzi. Ecco come – L’intelligenza artificiale al servizio dell’istruzione: educare tutti e meglio

– Lorenzo Damiano, Luisa Franchina, Agenda DigitaleLa creazione di cyberparchi va nella giusta direzione per coinvolgere istituzioni e imprese in un circolo virtuoso che porti anche alla rinascita di aree, quale quella dell’ex Cara di Mineo, in Sicilia, a beneficio dell’intera collettività e per una rinnovata consapevolezza del Paese in chiave cyber – Cyberparchi: l’esperienza internazionale e l’iniziativa italiana per l’ex Cara di Mineo – Agenda Digitale

– Domenico Marino, Agenda DigitaleUn rapporto uscito su Technology Review Insights del MIT evidenzia come l’intelligenza artificiale sia potenzialmente in grado di accelerare lo sviluppo dei farmaci agendo su diversi piani fra loro complementari. Ma occorre prestare molta attenzione alla qualità dei dati usati. Ecco perché – L’IA può accelerare lo sviluppo dei farmaci, ma evitiamo scorciatoie

 Global Topics-G20:

– Atlantic CouncilLeaders are flocking to Rome this weekend for the annual Group of Twenty (G20) nations summit, which will gather the world’s top economies at a pivotal moment in the global recovery from COVID-19. With many of the leaders hopping to the United Nations climate change summit shortly after this gathering, climate will likely be a hot topic—but the leaders will also discuss the global supply chain crisis, a deal for a global minimum tax on corporations, debt relief for poor nations, and much more. We asked our experts for a guide to the most pressing issues and what to expect from the summit. – Expert briefing: What to watch at the G20

 Greece:

– John Psaropoulos, Al JazeeraThe farmers of Ampelonas in central Greece are headed for financial ruin. Last July, as a series of heatwaves struck the country, their electricity was cut off so they couldn’t irrigate their fields. Entire crops were lost. “From an acre of pear trees, I didn’t collect a single fruit,” said Yiorgos Sakorrafas, president of the local farmers’ union. “Others lost alfalfa. Some harvested greatly reduced yields.” – Climate change and human error shrivel Greek agriculture

 India:

– Al JazeeraIndia has test-fired a nuclear-capable intercontinental ballistic missile with a range of 5,000km (3,125 miles) from an island off its east coast amid rising border tensions with China. The successful launch on Wednesday was in line with “India’s policy to have credible minimum deterrence that underpins the commitment to no first use”, said a government statement. – India tests nuclear-capable missile amid tensions with China

– Raqib Hameed Naik, Al JazeeraIn April this year, the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF), an independent, bipartisan federal government commission, recommended India be placed on a religious freedom blacklist for the second year in a row. In its annual report for 2021 (PDF), the commission, which makes religious freedom and foreign policy recommendations to the US president, the US Congress, and the Department of State, called for India, the world’s largest democracy, to be designated as a “country of particular concern” (CPC) for “egregious religious freedom violations”. – Q&A: ‘Religious freedom conditions in India greatly concerning’

– Al JazeeraIndia has rejected calls to announce a net zero carbon emissions target and said it was more important for the world to lay out a pathway to reduce such emissions and avert a dangerous rise in global temperatures. India, the world’s third largest emitter of greenhouse gases after China and the United States, is under pressure to announce plans to become carbon neutral by mid-century or thereabouts at next week’s climate conference in Glasgow. – India rejects net zero carbon emissions target before COP26

– Tanvi Madan, War on the RocksIn early 2019, Gen. David Petraeus and S. Jaishankar, now India’s external affairs minister but then in his private capacity, appeared together on a panel. The former U.S. Central Command commander asserted that China was “the defining issue of our age” and, seemingly in frustration, added that countries such as India “have to decide.” Asked if India could indeed take a stand and choose a side, Jaishankar retorted, “India should take a stand and should take a side — our side.” – India Is Not Sitting on the Geopolitical Fence

 Iran-Azerbaijan:

– Vali Kaleji, The Jamestown FoundationAlthough many observers assumed that the recent uptick in tensions between Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan (see EDM, October 6) would die down following the telephone calls between Iranian Foreign Minister Hossein Amir Abdollahian and his Azerbaijani counterpart, Jeyhun Bayramov (Al Jazeera, October 13), subsequent public remarks by the latter country’s President Ilham Aliyev again incensed Tehran. In his comments at an October 15 session of the Council of Heads of State of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Aliyev mentioned that Azerbaijan “has blocked a drug trafficking route from Iran through [the] Jabrayil district of Azerbaijan to Armenia and further to Europe” (Azernews, October 15). In reaction to this statement, Iranian Supreme National Security Council Secretary Ali Shamkhani said that, “Ignoring the principles and requirements of the neighborhood and making false and unconstructive statements is not a sign of good faith and prudence” (Mehrnews, October 15). Weeks earlier, responding to an interview the Azerbaijani president gave to the Turkish outlet Anadolu Agency, Iran’s foreign ministry spokesperson, Saeed Khatibzadeh, declared, “Aliyev’s remarks are surprising because they come at a time when Tehran and Baku have good relations based on mutual respect and there are normal channels through which the two sides can talk at the highest level” (Anadolu Agency, September 28). – Tensions in Tehran-Baku Relations: Iran’s New Transit Routes in Armenia and the Caspian Sea

 Iran-Saudi Arabia:

– Ilan Zalayat, Atlantic CouncilIn September, Israeli Foreign Minister Yair Lapid made the first-ever visit to Bahrain by a high-ranking Israeli official. He also visited a warship belonging to the US Navy’s Fifth Fleet. At the time, an anonymous Israeli official noted that Jerusalem and Manama are looking to cooperate in response to the growing threat of Iranian drone attacks that “disturb everyone.”. By “everyone,” the Israeli source was most likely also conveying the concerns of Bahrain’s neighbor, Saudi Arabia. Going largely unnoticed, the small but sophisticated Iranian-made armed drones have undercut the security balance in the Gulf region and the Arabian Peninsula over the past few years, ushering in a novel asymmetrical menaceIran’s drones are a buzzing menace for Saudi Arabia

Israel-France:

– Rina Bassist, Al MonitorA delegation of 14 senior Israeli figures paid a discreet visit to Paris last week, including former top officials at Israeli security agencies, security experts, IDF officers, three Knesset members and one minister. Intelligence Minister Elazar Stern had actually joined the delegation at the last moment, but it was his presence specifically that was important for the French. – Israel takes security issues to France

 Israel-Syria:

– Lilach Shoval, Al MonitorAn unnamed Israeli security source told public broadcaster Kan on Oct. 25 that the air force will soon have to decide whether to act against the Syrian air defense system, in order to preserve Israeli supremacy in the region. Alleged Israeli attacks on Iranian targets in Syria have become routine in recent years. Just two weeks ago, Israel reportedly attacked (according to foreign media) twice within one week – once, on Oct. 9, targeting an arms shipment near the T-4 air base and a few days later, on Oct. 14, in the Tadmor region of Homs Province. But the window of opportunity for Israeli military activity in Syria, which opened seven years ago, appears to be narrowing due to a number of regional and global shifts. – Israel’s room to maneuver in Syrian skies faces new constraints

 Kenya:

– David Herbling, Bloomberg, Al JazeeraKenya plans to retire or convert heavy fuel oil-fired power plants to use liquefied natural gas by 2030 as the nation pursues a cleaner energy path to a 100% climate-friendly grid. State-owned Kenya Electricity Generating Co., or KenGen, is conducting a feasibility study on reconfiguring the thermal power plants that currently account for about 7% of the grid load, said Isaac Kiva, renewable energy secretary at the Energy Ministry. The move is part of the East African nation’s target to reach net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. – Kenya to convert oil plants to LNG in climate-friendly grid push | Business and Economy News | Al Jazeera

North Africa:

– Atlantic CouncilIn the last decade, several events redefined North Africa’s heterogeneous character and identity. This year marks the tenth anniversary of the beginning of the Arab spring, but most of the root causes fueling the unrest remain unaddressed. The region is undergoing a delicate phase in its political, social, and economic life, and the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic impact have further exacerbated pre-existing vulnerabilities and inequalities, triggering frustration and distrust among North African citizens towards institutions, ruling elites and political parties. In partnership with the Italian Institute for International Political Studies (ISPI), the Atlantic Council’s Rafik Hariri Center is pleased to present its latest report, “North Africa 2030: What the Future Holds for the Region,” edited by Karim Mezran and Armando Sanguini. The edited volume with contributions from regional experts including Yahia Zoubir, Abdelkader Abderrahmane, Pietro Gagliardi, Aldo Liga, Hannah Abdullah, Nader Kabbani, Shlomo Roiter Jesner, and Alissa Pavia reveals that North Africa still faces an array of challenges –  transnational terrorism, illegal migrant smuggling, poor local governance, and lack of basic infrastructure – that pose severe threats to North Africa’s economic, social, and political development. The report also notes that greater political stability, good governance, renewable energies, sustainable urbanization and greater employment opportunities for the youth are vital for creating prosperity in North Africa. The report also includes analysis on socio-economic and political trends in Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. – North Africa 2030: What the future holds for the region

Poland-USA:

– Jen Judson, Defense NewsPoland announced earlier this year it planned to buy 250 M1A2 Abrams SEPv3 tanks, with hopes deliveries would be made as early as 2022, but General Dynamics chief executive Phebe Novakovic said Wednesday the foreign military sale could go through in roughly two years. “This is a powerful system for the Poles to have, given their geographic location and their historical experience, particularly with folks, you know, streaming west,” she said during an Oct. 27 call with analysts. “This is an FMS sale; we’re looking at somewhere … maybe in the two-year period.” – Here’s when General Dynamics thinks a sale of Abrams tanks to Poland will move forward

Russia:

– Kseniya Kirillova, The Jamestown Foundation:  Beginning in the fall of 2018, sociologists saw a sharp rise in social tensions in Russia, driven by price increases, unemployment and an economic crisis (Deutsche Welle—Russian service, September 6, 2018). Against the backdrop of ever harsher state repressions and restrictions on political activism (see EDM, July 9, 2021), this social stress has begun to manifest itself in irrational aggression, the growth of inter-ethnic conflicts, and even school shootings. – Increased Social Tensions in Russia Spill Over Into Shootings and Inter-Ethnic Conflicts

Saudi Arabia-UAE:

– Omar Al-Ubaydli, Atlantic CouncilWhile many commentators have been keen to interpret Saudi Arabia’s attempts to transform Riyadh into the Middle East’s economic capital as a threat to the economic interests of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a more nuanced analysis suggests something akin to a rising tide that will lift all boats. When Saudi Arabia announced plans in February requiring international companies to have their regional headquarters in the Kingdom as a precondition for participating in government contracts from 2023 onward, many interpreted the move as a shot across the bow at the UAE since Dubai is the location of choice for most companies operating in the region. A regional headquarters is what economists call an indivisible asset, which can’t be divided into smaller pieces—meaning that Riyadh’s gain must be Dubai’s loss. This has set the stage for the narrative of an economic war between Saudi Arabia and the UAE. – Saudi Arabia’s economic transformation benefits the UAE too

Sudan: 

– Mohamed Saied, Al MonitorThe Sudanese army has overthrown its civilian partners in power through a military coup that is bound to undermine the fragile democratic transition process in the country and deepen its economic crisis. In a televised speech on Oct. 25, Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, commander-in-chief of the Sudanese armed forces, announced the dissolution of the transitional government led by Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok, and of the Sovereignty Council, where military and civilian officials have shared power since its establishment in 2019 to oversee the transitional phase in Sudan. – Military coup opens new chapter in Sudan’s regional ties

Syria:

– Khaled al-Khateb, Al MonitorAreas under control of the Turkey-backed opposition in the Aleppo countryside have in recent weeks witnessed protests in which hundreds of laborers and teachers took part. The protesting teachers called for education reform and an increase in their monthly salaries, which are provided by the Turkish government, as their salaries are depreciating by the day amid a decline in the Turkish lira exchange rate against the US dollar. The teachers’ strike has raised concerns over the collapse of the educational process in the area. – Syrian teachers demand better salaries in rebel-held areas

Taiwan:

– Yoichi Kato, BrookingsAs tensions rise over the Taiwan Strait, the urgent sense of threat is increasing in Japan. So is the realization that trilateral cooperation with the United States and Taiwan is needed. Preventing and coping with the military crisis across the Taiwan Strait has been regarded as one of the main raisons d’être of the Japan-U.S. alliance for decades, along with the defense of Japan and the Korean Peninsula. North Korea has long been Japan’s number one threat, but now China has replaced it. In a recent public opinion poll in Japan, 80% of respondents answered that they felt threatened by China. Those polled were not even asked if they felt threatened by North Korea. – How should Taiwan, Japan, and the United States cooperate better on defense of Taiwan?

Turkey-USA:

– Diego Cupolo, Al MonitorAn expected meeting between Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his US counterpart, Joe Biden, at the G20 summit in Rome this weekend has been postponed, Turkey’s leader said Tuesday. The pair will instead meet on the margins of the COP26 climate conference in Glasgow, to be held between Oct. 31 and Nov. 12, where they will discuss a possible fighter jet deal, Erdogan told reporters aboard a return flight from Azerbaijan. – With F-16 deal in limbo, Erdogan-Biden meeting postponed to Glasgow

USA: 

– Harry I. Hannah, Atlantic CouncilWhen it comes to working with allies, business-as-usual won’t cut it anymore for the United States—especially in the face of growing Chinese and Russian competition and expanding systemic, regional, and terrorist threats. This is why the United States needs to make strengthening its alliances, particularly in Europe and the Indo-Pacific, a core element of its national-security strategy. – The US needs to reinvent its alliances. Today’s threats demand it.

– Aaron Boyd, NextgovThe Office of Management and Budget issued a late release of the Federal Data Strategy 2021 Action Plan. With little more than two months left in the year, the list of mandatory action items focuses on building on progress with—or catching up to—the first Action Plan, issued in 2020. – OMB Issues 11 Action Items for 2021 Data Strategy With 2 Months Left in the Year

– Mariam Baksh, NextgovThe State Department is working with Congress to create a new bureau for cyberspace and digital policy as part of a general push to bring American diplomacy into the 21st century. “We have a major stake in shaping the digital revolution that’s happening around us and making sure that it serves our people, protects our interests, boosts our competitiveness and upholds our values,” said Secretary of State Antony Blinken. “We want to prevent cyberattacks that put our people, our networks, companies and critical infrastructure at risk.” – Cybersecurity Is One of Five Pillars in State’s Modernization Initiative

– Brandi Vincent, NextgovAir Force fighter pilots will soon face new opponents in their training: artificial intelligence-based enemy pilots that can match humans based on their personal learning needs. After steering the production of numerous AI-enabled pilot agents for years, Aptima, Inc. confirmed it landed a four-year contract with the Air Force Research Laboratory to build an “automated librarian” that will categorize those AI pilots and pair them with military trainees in scenarios that are right to advance their skillsets. – Inside the Air Force Training Program that Will Pit Human Pilots Against AI

– Alexandra Kelley, NextgovThe Federal Bureau of Investigation issued a Flash report warning detailing security compromises associated with Ranzy Locker ransomware, which has targeted victims in the U.S. since late 2020. Ranzy Locker attacks are known to be launched by unknown cyber criminals and have compromised over 30 businesses as of July 2021. Victims range from businesses in manufacturing, transportation and information technology sectors. – FBI Warns of Ranzy Locker Hacks Against U.S. Companies

– Eric Katz, NextgovA Republican lawmaker this week introduced a measure to force all federal agencies to relocate out of the Washington, D.C., area, saying it would help incorporate more perspectives into federal policymaking. The 2021 Drain the Swamp Act (H.R. 5712), put forward by Rep. Warren Davidson, R-Ohio, would require all federal agencies to submit a plan within one year to move their headquarters out of Washington. The Office of Management and Budget and General Services Administration would have to approve the plans, which would be implemented by September 2026. – Lawmaker Introduces ‘Drain the Swamp Act’ to Force All Agencies to Leave Washington

– Patience Wait, NextgovWhen Sen. Gary Peters, D-Mich., talks about cybersecurity, his sense of urgency is palpable. Peters, who is chairman of the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, listed a range of issues the committee is addressing in an interview with the Washington Post that was livestreamed on Oct. 26. “We have an awful lot on our plate,” he said. Peters named border security, the rise of violent extremist groups, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s role in responding to fires, storms and the pandemic as examples. – Senate Committee Chair: ‘Ransomware Has Changed the Equation’

– Cezary Podkul, NextgovIt has become a ubiquitous internet ad, with versions popping up everywhere from Facebook and LinkedIn to smaller sites like Jobvertise: Airport shuttle driver wanted, it says, offering a job that involves picking up passengers for 35 hours a week at an appealing weekly pay rate that works out to more than $100,000 a year. – Scammers Are Using Fake Job Ads to Steal People’s Identities

– Mark Pomerleau, Defense NewsThe Defense Information Systems Agency earlier this month underwent a major reorganization, according to its director. “The reason that we did the reorganization on 1 October, the reason we did the strategy on 1 October was to align the strategy, the resources and the organizational structure and design all around the same priorities,” Lt. Gen. Robert Skinner, director of DISA, said during a keynote presentation as part of TechNet Cyber in Baltimore Oct. 27, also referring to the organization’s new strategic plan. “Is it 100 percent? No. But where it’s not, we’re continuing to move forward.” – DISA director announces agency reorganization

– Joe Gould, Defense NewsTwo key senators are urging President Joe Biden to waive sanctions against India for its purchase of a Russian S-400 air defense system, saying such a move would throw cold water on the important relationship. India signed a $5.4 billion deal with Russia in 2018 to buy the S-400 Triumf surface-to-air missile system amid tensions with Pakistan over the divided Himalayan region of Kashmir. India has since made a down payment and plans to complete the purchase by 2025. – US senators urge Biden to waive sanctions for India’s S-400 purchase

– Megan Eckstein, Defense NewsAs the U.S. Marine Corps begins launching the Naval Strike Missile from unmanned ground vehicles and the U.S. Navy continues installing NSM on its littoral combat ships, missile manufacturer Kongsberg is confident it can keep up with growing demand in the U.S. and around the globe. The Navy first identified the Norwegian missile as the solution for its over-the-horizon strike needs on LCS in 2018 and in 2019 sent the missile out on its first LCS deployment to the Indo-Pacific. Additionally, the Marines announced in budget documents in February 2020 they’d use the missile as part of their expeditionary advanced base operations plans, launching it as a ground-based anti-ship missile (GBASM) from unmanned Joint Light Tactical Vehicles in a pairing they call NMESIS (Navy-Marine Corps Expeditionary Ship Interdiction System). – Kongsberg, Raytheon ready to keep up as Naval Strike Missile demand grows

USA-China:

– Andrew Sheng, Xiao Geng, Project-SyndicateTwo global struggles – Cold War II and the fight against climate change – are colliding. By agreeing to hold a virtual summit before the end of this year, US President Joe Biden and Chinese President Xi Jinping have signaled that they want to prevent relations from deteriorating to the point that miscalculation could lead to armed conflict – a risk that recent tensions in the Taiwan Strait have highlighted. But Biden and Xi must also ensure that their great-power competition does not hamper cooperation on the existential threat of climate change. – The Tribalist Threat to Climate Action

– Robert Burns, The Associated Press, Defense NewsChina recently conducted a “very concerning” test of a hypersonic weapon system as part of its aggressive advance in space and military technologies, the top U.S. military officer says. Gen. Mark Milley, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, was the first Pentagon official to confirm on the record the nature of a test this year by the Chinese military that the Financial Times had reported was a nuclear-capable hypersonic weapon that was launched into space and orbited the Earth before re-entering the atmosphere and gliding toward its target in China. – Gen. Milley calls Chinese weapon test ‘very concerning’

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