venerdì, Febbraio 23, 2024

LO SVILUPPO DELL’AFRICA PASSA DALLE TECNOLOGIE

Il focus di oggi riguarda le tecnologie emergenti e lo sviluppo dell’Africa. 

FOCUS – From subsistence to disruptive innovation: Africa, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and the future of jobs, March 29. By Louise Fox and Landry Signé. Improving employment opportunities in Africa is already a major development policy issue, and given the number of young Africans expected to enter the job market over the next two decades, it will undoubtedly remain a concern. Academic research and think tank reports tend to herald the technologies emerging in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR; Schwab 2016) as game changers that can accelerate the economic transformation of developing countries, leading to the creation of wage jobs in expanding, higher-productivity sectors. African governments are being advised to organize and invest for this revolution by building labor force skills. Yet how realistic are these predictions for Africa? And what might be the consequences for inclusive development if Africans follow this advice? (read more)

ON LIFE (technology, the future of the internet, cybersecurity, data)

  • Treasury Wants to Know How the Government Might Grow Cyber Insurance Market, March 29. By Mariam Baksh, Nextgov. The Treasury Department is asking what the federal government might do to boost the insurance industry for cyber terrorism in an effort to assess the effectiveness of a national reinsurance program established in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. A notice set to publish in the Federal Register Wednesday seeks comment within 45 days on “any potential changes to the [Terrorism Risk Insurance Act] or [Terrorism Risk Insurance Program] that would encourage the take up of insurance for cyber-related losses arising from acts of terrorism as defined under TRIA, including but not limited to the modification of the lines of insurance covered by TRIP and revisions to the current sharing mechanisms for cyber-related losses.”. (read more)
  • The Two Technospheres, March 29. By CSIS. Decoupling of digital innovation, systems, and data flows between Western nations and China is a growing global issue with high potential to destabilize the digital world. Through a series of workshops and an analysis of existing efforts, the Multilateral Cyber Action Committee (MCAC) has provided an assessment on the current status of technology decoupling and the growing divergence of the Western and Chinese technospheres. The report provides a set of recommendations for action to mitigate the growing cybersecurity risks posed by technology decoupling. (read more)
  • Ethical AI development: Evidence from AI startups, March 29. By James BessenStephen Impink, and Robert Seamans, Brookings. Artificial Intelligence startups use training data as direct inputs in product development. These firms must balance numerous trade-offs between ethical issues and data access without substantive guidance from regulators or existing judicial precedence. We survey these startups to determine what actions they have taken to address these ethical issues and the consequences of those actions. We find that 58% of these startups have established a set of AI principles. Startups with data-sharing relationships with high-technology firms; that were impacted by privacy regulations; or with prior (non-seed) funding from institutional investors are more likely to establish ethical AI principles. Lastly, startups with data-sharing relationships with high-technology firms and prior regulatory experience with General Data Protection Regulation are more likely to take costly steps, like dropping training data or turning down business, to adhere to their ethical AI policies.  (read more)

AROUND THE WORLD (evolving worlds, ongoing relations, crisis, conflicts)

India

  • Poor data hamstrings gender equity reporting in India, March 29. By Vikas Kumar, East Asia Forum. Achieving gender equity is a major development challenge facing countries such as India. The sex ratio — the ratio of the number of females per thousand males — is a key measure of the scale of the challenge. In the late twentieth century, there was a precipitous decline in the child sex ratio in India — from 962 in 1981 to 918 in 2011. (read more)

Israel

Nagorno Karabakh

  • Tensions Escalate in Karabakh as Azerbaijan Demands Withdrawal of Armenian Armed Groups, March 29. By Vasif Huseynov, The Jamestown Foundation. On March 26, the Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan called on the Russian side to complete the withdrawal of “the remnants of the Armenian army and illegal Armenian armed detachments” from the Azerbaijani territories temporarily under the control of Moscow’s peacekeeping mission (Mod.gov.az, March 26). As Azerbaijan has always contended, the fourth article of the trilateral (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia) agreement that ended the Second Karabakh War (September 27–November 10, 2020) unequivocally mandates the withdrawal of Armenian military forces from the region in parallel with the deployment of peacekeeping units (President.az, November 10, 2020). This was at least the second instance since the war’s end that the Azerbaijani defense ministry had publicly appealed to Moscow to ensure the full implementation of this article (see EDM September 22, 2021). This time, however, the appeal occurred against a background of intense political and geopolitical significance. (read more)

South Korea – Japan

Sri Lanka

Uganda

USA

  • Climate change creates financial risks. Investors need to know what those are, March 29. By Michael Panfil and David G. Victor, Brookings. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) voted recently to move a proposal forward that will require publicly traded companies to disclose the financial risks they face from climate change. These rules aim to bring corporate obligations for the disclosure of climate risk level with the requirements for disclosure of other forms of financial risk. Doing so is long overdue and a critical step to ensuring investors have access to information about the investment risks faced from climate. Those financial harms include “transition risks” stemming from shifts in innovation, technology, and competitive landscape as well as “physical risks”, such as more severe wildfires to more frequent flooding. (read more)

USA – Czech Republic

DEFENSE – MILITARY

  • New Tech Budget Request is the Defense Department’s Largest Ever, March 29. By Patrick Tucker, Nextgov. Efforts to outpace China are driving up the share of Pentagon spending devoted to emerging science and technology, Deputy Defense Secretary Kathleen Hicks said Monday.  The Biden administration is requesting $130 billion for the department’s research, engineering, development, and testing for 2023, nearly 10 percent up from last year’s request. Of that, $16.5 billion will go toward emerging science and technology. (read more)
  • China Tops Threats in New Defense Strategy, March 29. By Jacqueline Feldscher, Defense One. China is the No. 1 priority in the new National Defense Strategy, according to an unclassified fact sheet released Monday evening by the Defense Department. The fact sheet lists the Pentagon’s top four defense priorities, but makes clear that China is “our most consequential strategic competitor and the pacing challenge for the department.”. (read more)
  • Let’s Correct a Misperception About Nuclear Modernization, March 29. By Rep. Jim Cooper, D-Tenn., and Rep. Doug Lamborn, R-Colo., Defense One. As Chairman and Ranking Member on the House Armed Services Strategic Forces Subcommittee, we believe it is important to correct a false impression about a small but important component in the American nuclear arsenal. Five months ago, the Washington Post published an article about a new nuclear weapon fuze, the mechanism that detonates a warhead at the right time and place. Production of the new fuzes for the Navy’s submarine-launched ballistic missiles reached a new milestone last July, the article reported, and the Air Force’s intercontinental ballistic missiles will soon follow suit.  (read more)
  • Defense Acquisition Trends 2021, March 29. By Gregory Sanders, CSIS. Defense Acquisition Trends 2021 is the latest in an annual series of report examining trends in what the DoD is buying, how the DoD is buying it, and whom the DoD is buying from. This report analyzes the current state of affairs in defense acquisition by combining detailed policy and data analysis to provide a comprehensive overview of the current and future outlook for defense acquisition. This analysis will provide critical insights into what the DoD is buying, how the DoD is buying it, from whom the is DoD buying, and what the defense components are buying using data from the Federal Procurement Data System (FPDS). This analysis provides critical insights into understanding the current trends in the defense-industrial base and the implications of those trends on acquisition policy. (read more)

GLOBAL ENERGY FORUM 2022

  • Global Energy Forum – Atlantic Council. By Atlantic Council. The Atlantic Council Global Energy Forum is the premier international gathering of government, industry, and thought leaders to set the energy agenda for the year. This year’s Forum focuses on meeting short-term energy demand while not losing sight of crucial net-zero goals, and examine the geopolitical, energy market, and climate crises shaping the energy system. (read more)

RARE EARTH METALS

  • Chinese rare earth consolidation a cause for concern, March 30. By  Kristin Vekasi, East Asia Forum. The world needs more readily available rare earth metals. These metals are used in energy transition technologies such as electric vehicles and wind turbines, in most contemporary electronic gadgets, and in some defence applications. Over the coming decades, demand for rare earths is forecasted to increase by two to eight times over current supply. (read more)

RUSSIA – UKRAINE (impact, reactions, consequences)

  • NATO and the European Union Show Unity and Resolve in Brussels, March 29. By Pierre Morcos, Sean Monaghan, CSIS. The leaders of NATO and the European Union met in Brussels last week, along with G7 leaders, for an extraordinary trio of summits one month after Vladimir Putin began his invasion of Ukraine. While Russia continued its devastating assault across Ukraine, leaders from Europe, North America, and Japan reinforced their united front against Moscow’s war of aggression, repeating demands for Russia to end the conflict and withdraw its forces from Ukraine while increasing the economic and international pressure against the Kremlin. They also stood firm with the people of Ukraine, committing to further economic, humanitarian, and military support. (read more)
  • Ukraine, the Sanctions and the Future of Globalisation, March 29. By Valdai Discussion Club. In the world in the making, Russia cannot belong to Europe and Asia at the same time, at least not in the years to come. The US is skilfully taking advantage of the Ukraine war to tighten the grip on the EU, hence Russia has no choice but to redirect its agenda on three directions: domestically, Asia, the Global South (Africa plus Latin America), writes geopolitical analyst Emanuel Pietrobon. (read more)
  • What the Baltic presidents want the West to do now against Russia, March 29. By Nick Fouriezos, Atlantic Council. As Russia’s war in Ukraine drags on, it’s time to ramp up Western sanctions even further, draw a red line around the use of chemical weapons by Russian forces, and implement selective no-fly zones around sensitive sites, such as nuclear power plants. That’s according to the presidents of Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia, who proposed a number of options to counter Russian aggression at an Atlantic Council Front Page event Tuesday. (read more)
  • War Polarizes Belarusian Analysts and Belarusians Themselves, March 29. By Grigory Ioffe, The Jamestown Foundation. The Belarusian service of the Russian independent media outlet Mediazona, founded in 2014 and blocked by the Russian government on March 5, recently published an extensive interview with Yegor Lebedok, a military expert (Mediazona, March 24). Lebedok is a doctor of physics and a graduate of the Academy of Public Administration. On January 31, he was fired from the Belarusian research-and-development firm Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Technology, where he headed a lab, for his anti-war pronouncements and analyses (Euroradio, January 31). (read more)
  • Moscow Mulling Wholesale Border Changes in Central Eastern Europe, March 29. By Paul Globe, The Jamestown Foundation. The most compelling reason why the international community is opposed to any border change is the capacity of changes in one border to spark consideration of changes in others, creating or at least exacerbating problems in the relations between existing countries. Until Russian President Vladimir Putin’s annexation of Ukraine’s Crimea in 2014 and his moves to absorb parts of Donbas now, there had been little serious talk about changing borders in Europe since the end of World War II (the breakup of several former Communist federations in the 1990s notwithstanding). But the Kremlin leader has opened the sluice gates with his latest actions; and now some in the Russian capital are mulling the possibility of wholesale border revisions across Central Eastern Europe. Even if none of these changes are in fact realized, the mere discussion of them will have the effect of heightening tensions in the region by spreading suspicions that their borders are at risk and the conviction that what had once seemed permanent may be anything but. (read more)
  • Lessons of sanctions on Russia for China, March 29. David Lubin, East Asia Forum. In sanctioning the Russian central bank, the United States and its allies have delivered a very substantial financial shock to Moscow. The power of the shock derives not so much from the sanctioning of a central bank — which is not new in itself, since the United States has previously sanctioned the central banks of Iran and Venezuela — but rather because of the number of participating countries. China will be watching closely. (read one)
  • Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 29. By Frederick W. Kagan, George Barros, and Kateryna Stepanenko, ISW. The Russians have not yet abandoned their attacks on Kyiv, claims by Russian Defense Ministry officials notwithstanding. Russian forces continued fighting to hold their forwardmost positions on the eastern and western Kyiv outskirts even as badly damaged units withdrew to Russia from elsewhere on the Kyiv and Chernihiv axes.The Russian high command has likely concluded that it cannot seize Kyiv and may not be able to move artillery closer to the center of the city. It may have decided to stop its previous practices of forcing units that have already taken devastating losses to continue hopeless offensive operations and of feeding individual battalion tactical groups into the battle as they become available rather than concentrating them to achieve decisive effects. Russian officials are likely casting these decisions driven by military realities as overtures demonstrating Russia’s willingness to engage in serious ceasefire or peace negotiations, possibly to conceal the fact that they have accepted the failure of their efforts on the Kyiv axis. (read more)

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