sabato, Giugno 15, 2024



June 30, 2022. By Charles Lichfield, Maia Nikoladze and Castellum.AI, Atlantic Council. In the previous edition of the Global Sanctions Dashboard, we may have expressed some slight impatience at Europe’s lack of resolve in diversifying away from Russian hydrocarbons. However, in early June, after painstaking negotiations among the 27 member states, the EU did agree on banning seaborne imports of Russian oil and reducing Russian oil imports by 90 percent by the end of this year. Pressure had grown in the intervening weeks, as Russia’s record revenues–enabled by high prices–had helped the ruble appreciate beyond pre-invasion exchange rates.  Global Sanctions Dashboard: Russia default and China secondary sanctions




  • July 1, 2022. By  Giulia Ajmone Marsan, East Asia Forum. The economic dynamism of ASEAN is well-known and in recent years the region has seen the emergence of some of the fastest growing digital economies in the world. The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated this trend, with 60 million new digital consumers since the pandemic started and the internet economy on track to account for US$360 billion by 2025. Addressing the digital divide in ASEAN

Australia – East Asia – China

  • June 30, 2022. By James Laurenceson, East Asia Forum. Whether fully intended or not, Australian trade policy is embracing a theatrical element that serves to lock in the country’s long-term interests. Canberra enthusiastically touts deals that have obvious potential to diversify trade away from China, including the Australia–UK Free Trade Agreement (FTA) struck in December 2021 and the Australia–India Economic Cooperation and Trade Agreement signed in April 2022. Yet the most significant agreement will see Australia more tightly integrated into an East Asian system with China further entrenched as its centre of gravity. RCEP shows that open regionalism still calls the shots

Britain – Chagos Islands

  • July 1, 2022. By Samuel Bashfield, Elena Katselli Proukaki, The Interpreter. Various contributors to The Interpreter’s Chagos Question debate assert that Britain’s controversial claim to the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory – BIOT) violates the rules-based order. And by extension, Australian and American support for London’s colonial-era sovereignty pretension further undermines this already fragile Indo-Pacific order.  The British Indian Ocean Territory and the rules-based order


  • July 1, 2022. By JJ Rose, The Interpreter. Theary Seng certainly knows how to attract attention. The prominent Cambodian-American human rights lawyer and activist was dressed as “Lady Liberty”, draped in flowing robes, sprinkled in gold glitter and carrying a prop torch and flame when a treason case against her was finalised in a Phnom Penh court earlier this month. The street theatrics had the required effect of causing a stir and annoying police. But the deeper narrative embodied by Seng’s antics is the crushing grip of the Hun Sen regime and the slow death of freedom and democracy in Cambodia. Taking on Cambodia’s “Lady Liberty”


  • July 1, 2022. By Merics. Green hydrogen is an important component of China’s path towards reaching carbon neutrality by 2060. While 80 percent of Chinese hydrogen is still produced using coal or gas with high CO2 emissions, a surge in technology development and large-scale projects led by local governments and companies are paving the way for a rapid expansion of the green hydrogen industry. In this episode of the MERICS China Podcast, Alexander Brown and Nis Grünberg give an outlook on China’s hydrogen industry and highlight how policy support and domestic R&D are closing the gap with European technology leaders. Green hydrogen in China, with Alexander Brown and Nis Grünberg
  • July 1, 2022. By , The Strategist. On 26 May a J-16 fighter aircraft from the Peoples Liberational Army Air Force conducted an ‘unsafe’ interception of an Australian P-8A Poseidon routine surveillance flight above international waters. The Chinese fighter pulled alongside releasing flares, then cut in front of the Royal Australian Air Force aircraft and released ‘chaff’—aluminium fragments to decoy incoming missiles. Chaff is familiar to audiences for its frequent appearance in the movie Top Gun: Maverick. By accident or design—or designed accident? China’s unsafe air intercepts

China – South Korea

  • June 2022. By Jeffrey J. Schott, PIIE. China’s sudden application to join the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) in September 2021 has broad implications for South Korea’s economic relations with China, Japan, and the United States. In the past, Korea frequently debated but invariably postponed deciding whether to participate in negotiations on the CPTPP, despite the substantial benefits to be gained from doing so. However, China’s application has prompted Korean officials to get off the fence and apply as well. As China moves to deepen its ties to regional partners, Korea needs to follow suit, complementing the ongoing implementation of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) with expedited negotiations to join the CPTPP and participation in the US-led Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF). Korean participation in the RCEP, CPTPP, and IPEF is desirable and mutually reinforcing and should allow Korea to sustain its strong commercial interests in both the US and Chinese markets. China’s CPTPP bid spurs South Korea to act on Asia-Pacific trade pacts


  • June 28, 2022. By OECD.  A renewed focus on structural reforms would help drive stronger growth and sustain living standards in Estonia as rising inflation, exacerbated by Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine has harmed its economic recovery and risks undermining its efforts to reduce poverty. Estonia: focus on structural reforms will underpin and boost recovery


  • June 28, 2022. By UNHCR. Ardo emerges from her shelter when she hears a truck delivering water, after several days of her and her livestock going without. Around five hundred internally displaced families are living at the makeshift Mara-gaajo site in Kebribeyah, Ethiopia’s Somali Region, after fleeing their homes in search of water during the worst drought in decades. Ethiopian families struggle to survive amid record drought

Europe – Russia

  • July 1, 2022. By Valdai Discussion Club. For quite a long time, Russia, like many other countries, had no opportunity to see Europe for what it is. However, in the new historical era we will not have to recycle old myths and long-standing illusions that we often created ourselves, writes Valdai Club Programme Director Timofei Bordachev. Europe’s Myths


  • July 1, 2022. By Charlotte Le Breton, Tom Waldwyn, IISS. The total value of French defence exports to almost all regions of the world grew during 2001–20: the exception was Europe, where French sales declined. This report examines several globally successful sectors for French defence companies, and why those companies have fared less well in the European market. It explains why there is likely to be an upturn in sales to Europe in the near future and argues that the next round of European joint-development programmes will be crucial to the longer-term health of French defence exports to the region.  French defence exports to Europe: past, present and future

Hong Kong

  • July 1, 2022. By Luke de Pulford, RUSI. On the 25th anniversary of the UK’s handover of Hong Kong to China, it’s worth reflecting how consecutive UK governments failed the people of the territory, and failed to hold Beijing to account for its violations of treat commitments. The UK Has Failed to Stand by Hong Kong
  • June 30, 2022. By Katja Drinhausen, Valarie Tan, Merics. Xi Jinping’s two-day visit to Hong Kong – his first official trip outside mainland China since January 2020 – is meant to signal that Beijing has the former British colony well under control 25 years after taking over. The pro-democracy demonstrations and weeks of deadlock between protestors and the government that shook the city in 2019 and early 2020 are indeed long over and Beijing has bestowed a stability of sorts on its global trading hub. But it has also created a new climate of fear and uncertainty that international companies and investors have to grapple with in new ways. Avoiding politics to focus on business is no longer an option as Beijing expects loyalty to its all-encompassing vision of security from public- and private-sector stakeholders. 25 years after the handover, Xi and Lee demonstrate Beijing’s iron grip on Hong Kong


  • July 1, 2022. By Harsh V. Pant, ORF. Even as leaders of the G-7, a grouping of the world’s seven richest nations, were meeting in Germany, Russia was busy bombarding Ukraine in a show of strength. Just before the summit began, Moscow unleashed a series of strikes across Ukraine using long-range missiles. And during the summit, reports came of Russian missiles hitting a shopping mall in the Ukrainian city of Kremenchuk. Against this backdrop, G-7 leaders tried to project a sense of unity in support of Ukraine for “as long as necessary” and promised to take serious steps to cap the Kremlin’s income from oil sales that are financing the war. They also imposed new sanctions on Moscow to restrict its ability to import technologies for its arms industry. The G7 is one part of India’s pursuit of a multipolar world


  • June 30, 2022. By Natan Sachs, Brookings. On July 13, U.S. President Joe Biden is scheduled to land at Ben Gurion Airport near Tel Aviv. In a change of plans, he will find not Naftali Bennett receiving him on the tarmac, but a new Israeli prime minister, Yair Lapid. The centrist Lapid, foreign minister for the past year, assumes the role of Israel’s fourteenth prime minister. The Knesset having dissolved itself, Lapid will serve in a caretaker role until a new permanent government can be sworn in following elections on November 1. Israel’s fifth parliamentary elections in less than four years will pit Lapid, four months into his term, against Bennett’s predecessor and Israel’s longest-serving prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu. Episode V: Israel’s caretaker

Italy – China

  • July 1, 2022. By Merics. The government of Mario Draghi is reportedly establishing a new unit within the cabinet of the prime minister to screen Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in strategic sectors. Rebecca Arcesati and Francesca Ghiretti argue that the new division should consider looking beyond FDI and pay attention more widely to research and innovation exchanges with non-EU actors, including China. Italy pushes back against China’s technology transfer


Latin America

  • June 29, 2022. By Monica de Bolle, PIIE. The goal of sustainable long-term economic growth has generally been a pipe dream for Latin America since the rebuilding of democracy in the 1980s. Chronically beset by inflation, uncontrolled public spending, wayward monetary policy, and external shocks, most recently from the COVID-19 pandemic, the region’s governments have lurched back and forth from right to left during election cycles, with each new regime undoing what came before it, including sensible policies and reforms in many cases. Latin America’s unstable politics dim hopes for economic growth


  • July 1, 2022. By Aditya Gowdara Shivamurthy, ORF. On 21 June 2022, an angry extremist mob disrupted the Yoga Day celebrations in Male, Maldives. The Maldivian police have suspected the involvement of local Islamic scholars and the opposition party, the Progressive Party of Maldives (PPM) in this violence. This unpleasant episode indicates the extremist challenges and threats that the Maldives continues to endorse. Although subsequent Maldivian governments have shown concerns about extremism in recent years, they have continued to sustain and reinforce the extremist ecosystem for their political benefits. Trouble in Paradise: Endorsed Extremism and Sustained Extremist Ecosystems in the Maldives


  • July 1, 2022. By Valdai Discussion Club. The picture of the alliance’s world formulated for the Madrid summit is fundamentally different from the one presented in 2010, when, amid conditions of peace and stability in the Euro-Atlantic region, NATO could afford the luxury of formulating threats in a general matter. However, it differs both from the communiqué and from the report of the 2021 expert group in which the main mega-trend in the development of the external environment of the alliance is the revival of great power competition as a challenge to the “rules-based order”. The new document more sharply and frankly captures the features of the present, which should determine the policy of the alliance in the future, writes Julia Melnikova, RIAC Program Coordinator. Route Restored? Results of the NATO Summit in Madrid
  • June 30, 2022. By William Alberque, IISS. The NATO 2022 Strategic Concept significantly downgrades the focus on arms control as the principle tool for managing conflict and arms races in favour of risk reduction, conflict management and confidence-building measures – compared to the last Strategic Concept released back in 2010. This was to be expected in an era when the concept of negotiating with Russia on any topic remains out of bounds. The Russia and China policies expressed in the new Strategic Concept are also important and break with past policies in several key areas. The fact that the Strategic Concept mentions China at all is notable because NATO documents very rarely do so. And it uses Cold War-style language regarding Russia that is stronger than that which has been used in any of the post-Cold War strategic concepts (in 1991, 1999 or 2010).  The new NATO Strategic Concept and the end of arms control
  • July 1, 2022. By , The Strategist. NATO’s 2022 summit has transformed the alliance’s approach to Russia after Vladimir Putin’s invasion of Ukraine. The organisation’s updated strategic concept says the Russian Federation is the most significant and direct threat to security and to peace and stability in the Euro-Atlantic area. ‘It seeks to establish spheres of influence and direct control through coercion, subversion, aggression, and annexation,’ the concept says. This is a marked shift from the 2010 concept which focused on terrorism as the main threat and saw Russia as a ‘strategic partner’. Despite support for Ukraine, NATO must continue to show resolve against Russia
  • June 30, 2022. By Jaspreet Jill, Breaking Defense. NATO leaders this week launched a new innovation fund and defense innovation accelerator initiative in an effort to stay ahead of technological advancements and cyber challenges posed by Russia and China. NATO leaders establish new €1B innovation fund, accelerator
  • June 30, 2022. By Atlantic Council. This summer blockbuster lived up to the hype. In Madrid this week, NATO allies substantially boosted their forces in Eastern Europe, struck a deal to invite Sweden and Finland into the club, and dropped a once-in-a-decade strategic concept that strove to break new ground on China and climate change. What do these developments mean—and which ones flew under the radar? How will history judge this consequential gathering? From Madrid to Washington, our experts are here with answers. The triumphs and question marks from this week’s NATO summit
  • June 30, 2022. By Atlantic Council. This one was a decade in the making. On Wednesday, NATO released its new Strategic Concept—a sixteen-page document of dry diplomat-speak sketching out the Alliance’s future path as it takes on threats posed by Russia, China, climate change, and more. But what were the allies really saying amid all the jargon? And what did they leave out? Experts from the Atlantic Council’s Transatlantic Security Initiative carefully combed through the document and dropped their insights in the margins. Below is the Strategic Concept, displayed with annotations from our experts. Our experts decipher NATO’s new Strategic Concept


  • July 1, 2022. By Naval News. Indra has been awarded contracts by Norway’s Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace for more than 70 million euros to equip the combat systems of future Type 212CD (Common Design) submarines with intelligent electronic defence systems incorporating new technologies, and low interception probability navigation radars, to ensure maximum capabilities to fulfill every mission and speed up decision-making. Indra to equip Type 212CD submarines with next-gen systems

Rohingyas – Myanmar

  • July 1, 2022. By Sreeparna Banerjee, ORF. The month of June marked a decade of suffering endured by the Rohingya population living in Rakhine state, Myanmar, from where they were evicted and are now surviving in open detention camps since 2012. The 2012 attacks on the Rohingya population unlocked an era of heightened tyranny that initiated the basis for more vicious and systematised military clampdowns in 2016 and ultimately 2017 that led to a mass exodus of close to a million hapless people to neighbouring Bangladesh. The current state of the Rohingyas living in Myanmar is worse than it was a decade back without any seemingly plausible solution. Decade-long detention: Rohingyas in Myanmar camps


  • June 30, 2022. By Paul Globe, The Jamestown Foundation. Wars almost invariably have serious demographic consequences, not only for the countries attacked but also for the attackers. Armed conflicts create immediate losses in lives and a decline in births on both sides, aggravate other pre-existing negative demographic trends and, most importantly, disrupt the number of women of prime child-bearing years straightaway and for years to come. Indeed, Russia’s 2022 re-invasion of Ukraine has affected the Ukrainian population in these regards in major ways; a fact that is already attracting some international attention (see EDM, June 14). Yet the ways in which the war is affecting Russia’s demographic situation have not been as obvious, even though those developments appear likely to be at least as consequential as those in Ukraine—and possibly even more so. Putin’s War in Ukraine Exacerbates Russia’s Serious Demographic Problems

Russia – Central Europe

  • June 30, 2022. By Daniel McVicar, The Jamestown Foundation. On June 24, the first contingent of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) multinational battlegroup set up to guard Slovakia’s eastern flank and commanded by Czech forces became operational (, June 26). Slovakia joins Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria as the newest recipients of NATO’s Enhanced Forward Presence (eFP), which, before the current Russian re-invasion of Ukraine, was only deployed in Poland and the Baltic States (Ministerstvo Obrany, May 4, 2022). Not so long ago, it would have been unthinkable that Slovakia would invite NATO and US troops for an extended stay on its territory. In fact, last January, Slovak President Zuzana Čaputová was ridiculed by the opposition—even accused of being an “American spy” by former prime minister Robert Fico’s party—for asking that NATO station troops in Slovakia (, January 21; EurActiv February 4). Now Fico’s far-left party SMER, which has historically opposed NATO and trumpeted Russian support, conceded that Russia is at least partially responsible for the tragedies in Ukraine. SMER and other Russophilic fringe parties in Slovakia, such as Ľudová Strana and Hnutie Republika, have also toned-down their criticism of NATO. Threat Perceptions of Russia Align in Central Europe

Russia – Ukraine

  • June 30, 2022. By Kseniya Kirillova, The Jamestown Foundation. On June 18, Lithuania blocked the transit by rail of sanctioned goods between Kaliningrad Oblast and the rest of Russia , a step that Russian propaganda immediately claimed could be a harbinger of a larger war in Europe involving Moscow and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (Regnum, June 23; see EDM, June 21). A Prolonged War in Ukraine Is Advantageous to Russia
  • June 30, 2022. By Karolina Hird, Kateryna Stepanenko, Frederick W. Kagan, and Grace Mappes, ISW. Russian forces retreated from the Snake Island on June 30 following a Ukrainian missile and artillery campaign. The Russian Defense Ministry spun the retreat as “a step of goodwill.”. The Russian Defense Ministry claimed that the Kremlin does not interfere with United Nations (UN) efforts to organize a humanitarian corridor for agricultural export from Ukraine but did not acknowledge the Ukrainian artillery and missile campaign that had actually caused the retreat. The Ukrainian Southern Operational Command had announced elements of that campaign on June 21. The Russian Defense Ministry has claimed that Russian forces defeated all Ukrainian drone and missile attacks leading up to their retreat despite considerable evidence to the contrary. The Russian defeat on the Snake Island will alleviate some pressure off the Ukrainian coast by removing Russian air defense and anti-ship missile systems from the island. The retreat itself will not end the sea blockade, however, as Russian forces have access to land-based anti-ship systems in Crimea and western Kherson Oblast that can still target Ukrainian cargo as well as the use of the remaining ships of the Black Sea Fleet. Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, June 30


  • June 30, 2022. By Andrew Lohsen, Conor Savoy, CSIS. It is regrettable that the words “corruption” and “Ukraine” are often connected in public discourse, even as the country fights for its survival. Despite widespread acknowledgement that Ukraine has undertaken substantial reforms to improve governance, accountability, and rule of law following the Revolution of Dignity in 2013–14, it continues to be saddled by perceptions of rampant corruption. Since the start of Russia’s invasion on February 24, discussions on Ukraine have understandably shifted to issues of defense and security and the question of possible end states. Yet, as foreign assistance from the West increases to support Ukraine’s defense of its territory and keep the economy afloat, concerns about corruption are reemerging. Ukraine’s ability to address these concerns effectively could make or break its strategy to survive and defeat Russia’s assault through deeper ties with Euro-Atlantic partners. To Keep Western Assistance Flowing, Ukraine Must Engage Corruption Concerns Head-On


  • July 1, 2022. By Eric Katz, Nextgov. The Supreme Court on Thursday severely restricted the Environmental Protection Agency’s ability to regulate greenhouse gases and fight climate change, while also setting a precedent that could severely restrict agencies’ capacity to create new regulations. The Supreme Court Deals a Major Blow to the EPA, and All Agencies
  • June 30, 2022. By Thomas Cullison, J. Stephen Morrison, CSIS. Throughout the Covid-19 pandemic, the Department of Defense (DOD) has made major contributions, both domestically and internationally, to civilian-led preparedness and response, particularly in logistics and planning, and numerous biomedical arenas including research, direct clinical care, and all aspects of public health including a worldwide network of infectious disease research laboratories. Certainly, DOD will be called upon to augment civil authorities for future similar crises both at home and abroad as it has been so often in the past with Ebola, SARS, MERS, and numerous other outbreaks. Often, however, these contributions arise amid sudden emergency demands, in an ad hoc fashion, without adequate forward mission planning and budgeting, and without clear backing in U.S. national security doctrine. And often DOD actions have deliberately low visibility—they are soon out of sight, out of mind—and are neither appropriately acknowledged nor well understood. Bring DOD Fully into the Mix of Pandemic Preparedness and Response
  • June 30, 2022. By Keon L. GilbertGabriel R. Sanchez, and Camille Busette, Brookings. Never has the health and well-being of any population been advanced through laws and practices that restrict access to health care, medicines, or new technologies.  However, in overturning Roe v. Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court (SCOTUS), will now not only restrict access to reproductive health care, but will also fuel a public health syndemic, characterized by disease clusters that are shaped by social, economic, and political determinants that lead to health inequalities and injustices. Dobbs, another frontline for health equity
  • June 30, 2022. By Isabel V. Sawhill and Morgan Welch, Brookings. On June 24, 2022, the Supreme Court overturned its decision in Roe v. Wade, which established a constitutional right to abortion. As many as 28 states are now expected to ban or restrict abortion. Many women from these states will seek an abortion in another state or access a “medical abortion” but many others, less able to travel or get a prescription for the abortion pill in a timely fashion, will end up carrying an unintended pregnancy to term. The end of Roe will create more inequality of opportunity for children
  • June 30, 2022. By Justin Katz, Breaking Defense. The Coast Guard today awarded Austal USA a contract worth up to $3.33 billion to produce up to 11 Heritage-class Offshore Patrol Cutters, with Austal beating out a large field of other shipbuilders, including incumbent Eastern Shipbuilding Group. Coast Guard picks Austal for $3.3 billion Offshore Patrol Cutter program


  • June 30, 2022. By Valdai Discussion Club. The historicism of diplomacy is not in memorising the “lessons” of history, but in the ability of a diplomat to put foreign policy decisions in context, to understand the systemic causes of international processes, and to be able to analyse these causes analytically. Diplomats must make sure from personal experience that the international system still exists, it is solid and based on military-political, not ideological realities, writes Valdai Club Programme Director Andrey Sushentsov. Personal Experience or Historical Knowledge? What Will Help Modern Diplomacy?
  • June 30, 2022. By Joseph E. Gagnon, PIIE. The return of inflation has touched off an unusual public debate among policymakers  around the world, but there are important differences in inflation across economies that call for radically different policy responses. Inflation may be caused by a reduction in an economy’s ability to supply goods and services, an increase in the demand for goods and services, or both. Reductions in supply appear to be widespread, but increases in demand are limited mainly to the United States and the United Kingdom. The inflation story differs across major economies
  • July 1, 2022. By , Info Security. Information, influence and narratives have played a vital role in conflicts throughout human history. Genghis Khan notably favored influence operations, allowing his soldiers to become operatives who would spread messages to persuade targets to surrender in advance of the invasion. As scholar Jack Weatherford notes in Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World, “paper was the most potent weapon in Genghis Khan’s arsenal.”. Applying Infosecurity Principles and Practices to Cognitive Security
  • July 1, 2022. By , Info Security. Law firms have exactly what cyber attackers want – confidential and sensitive data, PII, intellectual property, contract details, trade secrets and important case information – with (typically) little security. Lawyers are bound to the attorney-client privilege, which means they must make every effort to keep all client information confidential. This would include prioritizing cybersecurity since much confidential client data is held within digital and technological systems.  What Law Firms Need to Know About Cybersecurity
  • June 30, 2022. By Shania Kennedy, Health IT Analytics. A study published in Nature Communications outlines a newly-developed artificial intelligence (AI) framework that can successfully identify and differentiate between normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and non-AD dementias (nADD) on par with neurologists and neuroradiologists. AI Framework Differentiates Alzheimer’s, Other Dementias
  • By OECD, FAO. The Agricultural Outlook 2022-2031 is a collaborative effort of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. It brings together the commodity, policy and country expertise of both organisations as well as input from collaborating member countries to provide an annual assessment of the prospects for the coming decade of national, regional and global agricultural commodity markets. The publication consists of 11 Chapters; Chapter 1 covers agricultural and food markets; Chapter 2 provides regional outlooks and the remaining chapters are dedicated to individual commodities. OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2022-2031
  • By FAO. The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2022 (SOCO 2022) discusses how trade policies, based on both multilateral and regional approaches, can address today’s challenges for sustainable development. Trade policies in food and agriculture should aim to safeguard global food security, address the trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives, and strengthen the resilience of the global agrifood system to shocks, such as conflicts, pandemics and extreme weather. The report discusses the geography of trade, analysing food and agricultural trade and its patterns across countries and regions, its drivers and the trade policy environment. Comparative advantage, trade policies and trade costs shape the patterns of trade in food and agriculture. When comparative advantage plays out in the global market, trade benefits all countries. Lowering tariff barriers and reducing trade costs can promote trade and economic growth. Both multilateral and regional trade agreements can facilitate the process of making trade an avenue for growth but the gains of trade are distributed unevenly. When global environmental impacts, such as climate change, are considered, a multilateral approach to trade can help expand the reach of mitigation measures. The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2022
  • By FAO. The 2022 edition of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture coincides with the launch of the Decade of Action to deliver the Global Goals, the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development and the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration. It presents how these and other equally important United Nations events, such as the International Year of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture (IYAFA 2022), are being integrated and supported through Blue Transformation, a priority area of FAO’s new Strategic Framework 2022–2031 designed to accelerate achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in food and agriculture. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2022
  • June 30, 2022. By Roshen Fernando and Warwick J. McKibbin, Brookings. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a dominant and growing global health threat that led to 1.27 million deaths in 2019. Given the widespread use of antimicrobials in agriculture and industrial applications in addition to healthcare and a range of factors affecting AMR, including climate variability, demographic trends, and plastic and metal pollution, an economy-wide approach is essential to assess its macroeconomic implications. Antimicrobial resistance: Designing a comprehensive macroeconomic modeling strategy


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