martedì, Giugno 25, 2024

GLI USA E LA TECNOLOGIA QUANTISTICA

FOCUS

  • June 13, 2022. By Michael G. Raymer and Saikat Guha, Brookings. A decade ago, scientists expected the quantum technology revolution to lie in the distant future—say, 30 years out. But recent developments have shortened that timeline dramatically, generating greater confidence than ever that the quantum revolution really is around the corner, although major technical challenges remain to be overcome. Just as U.S. government funding and policy allowed the internet to flourish, the United States now has the opportunity to help shepherd the next revolution in technology. How U.S. policymakers can enable breakthroughs in quantum science

THINK TANKS & GLOBAL NEWS

AROUND THE WORLD

Africa

  • June 13, 2022. By Francis Mangeni and Andrew Mold, Brookings. Despite the groundswell of popular support expressed for the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), concerns have grown about the slow progress of its implementation in recent months. Contrary to expectations, 2021 did not start with a bang, but with skepticism among senior trade officials, which also spilled over to the private sector. Trading was put on hold as negotiations dragged on, particularly on rules of origin and tariff schedules—an indictment that technical level processes had not kept pace with the political decisions. 7 ways to accelerate implementation of the AfCFTA

Australia – China

Belarus 

  • June 13, 2022. By Grigory Ioffe, The Jamestown Foundation. Between April 8 and 18, Chatham House conducted its ninth online survey of Belarusian urbanites since August 2020. According to that latest poll, 40 percent of Belarusians do not support Russia’s war with Ukraine, whereas 32 percent do. “Since our sample focuses only on the urban and internet-active population,” explains Ryhor Astapenia, who conducted all nine surveys, “it is reasonable to believe” that supporters and non-supporters of the war “are more or less equal in size” across the entire adult population in Belarus. Most Belarusians, however, including those backing the war, think the consequences of this conflict will be negative for Belarus. Only 6 percent are in favor of Belarus’s army entering the war; the majority believe it is not Belarus’s fight and Belarusians should not be blamed for it. Fifty-seven percent of Belarusians are leery of being pulled into the ongoing war, but only 11 percent believe that will actually happen. At the same time, Astapenia reveals there has been some recorded rise in pro–“Russian World” (Russkiy Mir) sentiment in Belarus; but what stands behind it is not so much hatred of Ukraine itself as anger toward the United States. The underpinning of Belarusians’ pro-Russian attitudes is cultural proximity, whereas the existence of pro-Western attitudes is best explained by value judgements. The outcome of this polling echoes multiple surveys conducted by sociologist Oleg Manaev prior to September 2016, when his polling firm was terminated by the authorities (Svaboda.org, June 8). Surveys and Opinion Makers Shed Light on Events Affecting Belarus

China – Africa – Pacific Islands

  • June 14, 2022. By Cornelia Tremann, The Interpreter. Earlier this month, China’s Foreign Minister Wang Yi concluded a 10-day tour of the Pacific, touching down in Solomon Islands, Kiribati, Samoa, Fiji, Tonga, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, as well as Timor-Leste (skipping Nauru, Palau, Tuvalu, and the Marshall Islands, which maintain relations with Taiwan). On 30 May, Wang hosted a virtual conference that included the Federated States of Micronesia and Niue, unveiling a sweeping proposed regional pact titled “China-Pacific Island Countries Common Development Vision” encompassing trade and investment, public health, police training and cooperation, cyber security, maritime mapping, surveillance, and disaster recovery. Insights from Africa as China stumbles in the Pacific

India – Australia

  • June 14, 2022. By Aarti Betigeri, The Interpreter. Prime Minister Anthony Albanese probably didn’t realise when he stepped into a Hindu temple in Western Sydney last month for a routine photo op during the election campaign that he was stepping right into a minefield. Photographed in a saffron scarf, the visit garnered some negative coverage for Albanese had, perhaps unwittingly, allowed himself to be draped in the colours of a Hindu fundamentalist group, the Vishva Hindu Parishad, or VHP, which is one of those that are currently working to uphold strict Hindu values in India. India-Australia relations: Positivity might be coming at a cost

Indonesia

  • June 14, 2022. By Akhmad Hanan, Budi Prayogo Sunariyanto, The Interpreter. In March, President Joko Widodo helped launch Indonesia’s first locally made electric vehicle – the IONIQ 5 – at a ceremony for a new automotive plant operated by the Hyundai Motor Group. The IONIQ5 is the first battery electric vehicle produced in the country, with the aim to supply the domestic and export EV market. The South Korean-based Hyundai has implemented a strategy to take advantage of the energy transition momentum in the transportation sector, which is a flagship program of the Indonesian government. Hyundai takes the driver’s seat in Indonesia’s EV market

Israel – Palestine

  • June 14, 2022. By HRW. Israel’s sweeping restrictions on leaving Gaza deprive its more than two million residents of opportunities to better their lives, Human Rights Watch said today on the fifteenth anniversary of the 2007 closure. The closure has devastated the economy in Gaza, contributed to fragmentation of the Palestinian people, and forms part of Israeli authorities’ crimes against humanity of apartheid and persecution against millions of Palestinians. Gaza: Israel’s ‘Open-Air Prison’ at 15
  • June 14, 2022. By Paul Aufiero, Omar Shakir, Abier Almasri, HRW. This month marks the 15th anniversary of the Israeli government’s closure of the Gaza Strip, which effectively confines more than 2 million people into a 40-by-11-kilometer (25-mile by 7-mile) strip of land. Israeli authorities’ sweeping restrictions on the movement of people and goods separate Palestinians there from the rest of the world. Senior Web Producer Paul Aufiero speaks with Israel and Palestine Director Omar Shakir and Senior Research Assistant Abier Almasri about their new report, what’s happening inside Gaza, and the people whose lives are being put on hold. Interview: For Palestinians in Gaza, Freedom is Priceless

Philippines

  • June 14, 2022. By HRW. President-elect Ferdinand Marcos Jr. of the Philippines should ensure a transparent, inclusive process to select qualified and independent human rights experts as commissioners for the national Commission on Human Rights (CHR), Human Rights Watch said today. Marcos, who will be inaugurated as the new Philippine president on June 30, 2022, is expected to announce his appointments in the coming days. Philippines: Ensure Rights Commission’s Independence

Russia

  • June 14, 2022. By , Project-Syndicate, The Strategist. In the broader discussion about Russia’s war on Ukraine, an important but overlooked element is the exodus of Russians from their homeland. Though it’s impossible to determine the scale of this phenomenon, we can expect the outflow to continue, especially if the United States pursues a policy to lure highly skilled specialists and sustain a Russian brain drain, as President Joe Biden has proposed. The Russians who are leaving
  • June 13, 2022. By Pavel K.Baev, The Jamestown Foundation. The full-scale re-invasion of Ukraine, ordered by Russian President Vladimir Putin on February 24, came as a shock for many groups within the Russian elite. They are still assessing the consequences of that autocratic decision and adapting to the fast-deteriorating political and economic environment. Meanwhile, Putin persists with rigidly confronting the West and apparently expects that the international sanctions, which personally target many beneficiaries of his regime, will force a consolidation of the elites inside “fortress-Kremlin” (Eurasia Insight, June 2). Asserting his monopoly over decision-making, Putin increased his presence in the public space last week and notably likened himself to Tsar Peter I (the Great) (Kommersant, June 10). The comparison with the emperor-reformer is flawed in many ways, but one informative reminder is that Peter’s death, at the age of 52, opened up a period of fierce elite squabbles. Putin’s peculiar obsession with his own health is a subject of much speculation and countless jokes; nonetheless, all stakeholders in the stability of the Russian state have to make plans for his sudden departure (Svoboda.org, June 10). Russian Elites Demonstrate Loyalty to Putin, but Are Preparing for Unruly Succession

Russia – Ukraine

  • June 13, 2022. By Maksym Bugriy, The Jamestown Foundation. President Emmanuel Macron’s recent warning not to “humiliate” Russia (Ouest-france.fr, June 3), while he continues to try to mediate Russia’s “exit” from the war in Ukraine, drew ire from Ukrainian officials, echoed by both Ukrainian and Russian experts and even some French thinkers. Not only does such rhetoric from the Élysée Palace undermine France’s growing military assistance to Ukraine, but it also invites the Kremlin to attack France without fear of repercussions. Geopolitical considerations but also Macron’s personal background may help explain the French president’s current approach to Russia, which inadvertently harms the West’s unity based on shared values and considerations of the rule of law. Macron’s France Struggles to Chart Course in Russia’s War on Ukraine
  • June 13, 2022. By Kateryna Stepanenko, Mason Clark, George Barros, and Grace Mappes, ISW. Kremlin-sponsored outlet Izvestia published and quickly removed an appeal by the First Deputy Head of the Russian Presidential Administration Sergey Kirelenko for Russia to rebuild the Donbas on June 12 and blamed hackers for what they (likely falsely) claimed was a “fake publication.”. Izvestia likely intended to save the article for a later date to set informational conditions for Russian annexation of Donbas. Kirelenko’s appeal stated that Russia will restore the Donbas regardless of high costs or if doing so lowers the standard of living in Russia. Izvestia blamed unknown hackers for publishing a “fake article,” but it is possible that hackers instead released an article Izvestia had prepared to publish at a later date. The Kremlin previously published and removed an article prematurely celebrating a Russian victory over Ukraine in late February and discussing the capture of Ukraine in past tense in anticipation of Ukraine’s capitulation during the first Russian-Ukrainian negotiations in Belarus. Unnamed Kremlin officials previously identified Kirelenko as the future head of a new Russian federal district, which would encompass Donbas, and occupied settlements in Kherson and Zaporizhia Oblasts. Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, June 13

Syria

Taiwan

  • June 13, 2022. By Colin Clark, Breaking Defense. In a much anticipated keynote at the Shangri-La Dialogue, Chinese defense minister Gen. Wei Fenghe warned that China “will fight to the very end” if “anyone dares to secede” from China, a not-so-veiled shot at Taiwan. China ‘will fight to the very end’ over Taiwan: Chinese defense minister
  • June 13, 2022. By Ryan Hass, Brookings. There has been a lot of global media frenzy about Taiwan’s security in recent weeks. Experts have debated what lessons China might be drawing from Russia’s military setbacks in Ukraine. Pundits grew excited when President Joe Biden declared in Tokyo that the United States would intervene militarily if Taiwan was attacked. Yet, below this exuberant froth, policy discussions in the United States, Asia, and Europe have remained relatively steady. For Taiwan, reading the moment is essential

USA

  • June 13, 2022. By Wendy EdelbergChye-Ching Huang, and Rose Jenkins, Brookings. In The Hamilton Project book “Tackling the Tax Code: Efficient and Equitable Ways to Raise Revenue” (Nunn and Shambaugh 2020), leading economists and other experts offered a range of detailed proposals for better tax policies that would raise revenue in a progressive and growth-friendly manner. That book includes policy proposals for several issues, including a value-added tax, a financial transactions tax, wealth and inheritance taxes, better enforcement and administration of old and new tax laws via enhanced Internal Revenue Service resources, and fixing the broken corporate and international tax systems. On that last point, Kimberly Clausing contributed a policy proposal intended to raise additional revenue from U.S. multinational corporations in efficient, equitable ways (Clausing 2020a). Congress is currently considering some of the essential aspects of Clausing’s proposal. Six economic facts on international corporate taxation
  • June 13, 2022. By Martha Ross, Brookings. Investing in educational and career opportunities for young adults is a smart bet on the future. And that is exactly what many states, cities, and counties are doing with American Rescue Plan Act (ARP) funds. State and local governments are leading the way on service programs

USA – ASEAN

  • June 14, 2022. By Sheryn Lee, East Asia Forum. On the 45th anniversary of official US–ASEAN ties, US President Joe Biden hosted the leaders of Southeast Asian nations in May 2022 for a historic summit at the White House. The meeting’s aim was to signal a ‘new era’ in relations by reassuring ASEAN of its centrality at the ‘heart’ of Biden’s Asia strategy. Major power competition constrains ASEAN ambitions

USA – South Korea

  • June 13, 2022. By Daniel Sneider, East Asia Forum. The goals of US President Joe Biden’s recent trip to Japan and South Korea were simple — to shore up the alliance system and make clear to allies that the United States is not going to abandon Asia because of the war in Europe. The well-planned visit displayed a three-pronged strategy. Yoon’s election is a strategic boon for Biden

DEFENSE, MILITARY

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