domenica, Giugno 16, 2024

LAVORARE SUL TECHNOLOGY DIVIDE

FOCUS

July 18, 2022. Xavier CireraDiego Comin, and Marcio Cruz, Brookings. Since Joseph Schumpeter’s pathbreaking work, technology has been recognized as the center of economic growth and development. Technologies used by firms are central to the process of creative destruction. But despite this centrality, there is no comprehensive body of data across countries and sectors that allows measuring where the frontier is, how far firms in developing countries are from it, and what technologies firms use in their day-to-day operations.   Leapfrogging is rare: Technology upgrading by firms is mostly continuous

AROUND THE WORLD

Australia

  • July 19, 2022. Hugh Piper, The Interpreter. The new Labor government has already made a determined effort to set a new narrative and tone for Australia in the world. A remarkable pace of speeches, there have already been 13 major statements of the new government’s foreign and strategic policy – more than one per week – since the election: three each from Prime Minister Anthony Albanese and Deputy PM and Defence Minister Richard Marles; four by Foreign Minister Penny Wong; and one each from Pat Conroy, who holds the defence industry and international development portfolios, Treasurer Jim Chalmers, and Assistant Foreign Minister Tim Watts. Australia’s new government seizes the international bully pulpit

Cambodia

  • July 18, 2022. Sokvy Rim, East Asia Forum. The Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) achieved a landslide victory in the commune elections in June 2022, gaining 80 per cent of the 11,622 commune council positions. Yet there is speculation that Cambodian Premier Hun Sen is unlikely to stand as the prime ministerial candidate in the 2028 national election. Hun Sen’s son set for electoral success

China

  • July 18, 2022. Willy Wo-Lap Lam, The Jamestown Foundation. The relentless cascade of bad economic news in China has not only cast doubt on the governance ability of the Xi Jinping leadership, but has also called into question the long-term viability of the Chinese economic model, which stresses maintaining party-state control of the market and limiting international access to sensitive sectors such as finance. Economic Woes Worsen as Support for Xi Jinping’s Leadership Begins to Falter
  • July 18, 2022. Cheng Li, China-US Focus. “If there is indeed a distinguishable process of acquiring power,” wrote the renowned American political sociologist Barrington Moore, Jr., “the first sequence is often the attempt to distinguish” the rising elite group. The new elite’s knowledge and expertise are often perceived as essential for the future development in new domestic and external environments. In present-day China, the rapid rise of the “cosmos club”—technocrats in power who have advanced their professional careers in the aerospace and aviation industries—has paralleled the country’s rising aspiration to take on a prominent role in the international “space club.”. The Reshuffling Report

Europe

  • July 19, 2022. Valdai Discussion Club. The Ukrainian crisis has launched the processes of a global divide: between the West and the Non-West, writes Valdai Club Programme Director Andrey Sushentsov. In Europe, the new watershed means a military-political confrontation between Russia and NATO, following the patterns of the deep European security crisis of the 1970s and 1980s, when the parties were close to a nuclear war, but one never took place. Outside the European continent, the Non-West is now actively taking stock of its relations with the Euro-Atlantic states. Strategy of Sentimentality in EU Foreign Policy
  • July 19, 2022. Eva Cossé, Kerstin McCourt, HRW. For too long, the European Union external borders agency, Frontex, has operated as though border enforcement and human rights were two competing principles. But an EU border agency that guarantees people’s rights at Europe’s borders is only possible with strong leadership and commitment from the top. As the search for Frontex’s next executive director gets underway, rights should be a central focus throughout the process. The Hand at the Helm of Frontex
  • July 18, 2022. Constanze Stelzenmüller, Brookings. “We just don’t know. Everything is possible.” This was German Economics Minister Robert Habeck’s succinct response to the question currently consuming his country’s government, industry and public: When the 10-day scheduled maintenance to the Nord Stream 1 pipeline ends on July 21, will the Russian state-controlled gas exporter Gazprom resume deliveries? Or will Vladimir Putin perform a gasectomy on Germany? A German gas crisis will cause jitters across Europe

India

Iran – GCC Countries

Iraq

Pakistan

  • July 19, 2022. Juxtapositions and complexities rather than a neat straight line mark the trajectory of Pakistan’s politics. Pakistan is in a state of crisis. On almost all fronts whether it is politics, economy, security and foreign policy the country is in deep disarray. The past few months were eventful to say the least. For the first time in the history of Pakistan, a Prime Minister was ousted through the democratic process of a no confidence motion. The uncertainty that gripped the nation did not, however, end, as the current government headed by the new PM Shehbaz Sharif faces multiple challenges. Recent Developments Add to Instability in Pakistan

Russia

  • July 18, 2022. Andrew Monaghan, RUSI. While speculation around the potential demise of Putin’s regime is understandable, it is more helpful to consider the ‘so what’ of who comes next. Kremlinology and the Great Power Competition

Russia – Middle East 

  • July 18, 2022. Pavel K. Baev, The Jamestown Foundation. The Ukraine war has generated shockwaves far beyond the Donbas battlefields, and the Middle East has absorbed and returned the variegated impacts and, as a result, has attracted increased attention in recent weeks. Russian President Vladimir Putin is due to visit Tehran, Iran, on July 19, aiming to counter United States President Joe Biden’s visit to Israel and Saudi Arabia last week. Biden sought to discharge tensions in the region and encourage cooperation between historic adversaries, and every step in peace promotion narrows Russia’s opportunities to manipulate conflicts in the region. Putin’s agenda is shaped by his vision of the world order’s collapse, accelerated by Russia’s attack on Ukraine, and the Middle East is precisely where Moscow must convincingly demonstrate the erosion of US leadership (Kommersant-FM, July 13).Russia Cherishes Ambitions but Loses Positions in Middle East

Russia – Ukraine

  • July 19, 2022. , Project-Syndicate, The Strategist. The Ukraine war is being fought both on the battlefield and in the broader geopolitical context. And Russia seems to have a chance of winning on both fronts. How to end Russia’s war on Ukraine

Sri Lanka

Syria – ISIS

  • July 18, 2022. Crisis Group.  Its self-declared caliphate is gone, but ISIS continues to stage attacks and intimidate the public in much of its former domain. The forces fighting the group need to hinder the militants’ movement between Syria’s regions – and, above all, to avoid debilitating conflicts with one another. Containing a Resilient ISIS in Central and North-eastern Syria

Taiwan

Thailand

  • July 19, 2022. HRW.  Thai authorities should immediately drop the charges and release pro-democracy activists detained for insulting the monarchy (lese majeste), Human Rights Watch said today. Thailand: Free Detained Critics of Monarchy

Turkey – Armenia

Turkey – Azerbaijan – Kazakhstan

  • July 18, 2022. Naghi Ahmadov, The Jamestown Foundation. On June 27, Baku, Azerbaijan, hosted the first trilateral meeting of the ministers of foreign affairs and transport of Türkiye, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan (News.az, June 27). The ministers paid special attention to issues of regional cooperation and the development potential of the Middle Corridor (Trans-Caspian International Transport Route). At the conclusion of the meeting, the Baku Declaration was signed (Apa.az, June 27) and an interdepartmental working group on transport to address practical issues related to the full use of the Middle Corridor was established (Anadolu Agency, June 28). Following the ministers’ gathering, the first meeting of the Azerbaijani-Turkish Working Group on Transport and Communications was held on June 29–30 (Azertag, July 1). The sides set a target to increase mutual trade turnover from $4.6 billion to $15 billion in 2023 (AzerNews, July 1). First Trilateral Meeting of the Ministers of Türkiye, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan

USA

USA – Middle East

  • July 19, 2022. , The Strategist. US President Joe Biden’s new vision of the Middle East publicised before his recent trip to Israel and Saudi Arabia appears very much like the old visions advanced by his predecessors, with some modifications. His pre-election rhetoric about America’s renewed commitment to human rights under his leadership and his promise to treat Saudi Arabia as a ‘pariah’ state after the murder of Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi have been all but forgotten. Did the US gain anything from Biden’s trip to the Middle East?

TOPICS

Cybersecurity

  • July 19, 2022. Kyle Wiggers, TechCrunch. As AI-powered services like OpenAI’s GPT-3 grow in popularity, they become an increasingly attractive attack vector. Even shielded behind an API, hackers can attempt to reverse-engineer the models underpinning these services or use “adversarial” data to tamper with them. According to Gartner, 30% of all AI cyberattacks in 2022 will leverage these techniques along with data poisoning, which involves injecting bad data into the dataset used to train models to attack AI systems. HiddenLayer emerges from stealth to protect AI models from attacks
  • July 19, 2022. , Info Security. As organizations expand remotely and to the cloud, the need for authentication that reaches all corners of a growing network – without incurring security burnout – is necessary to balance productivity with security. Modern authentication is a scalable solution that provides passwordless access, role-based permissions and cloud-capable validation, but how you implement it varies as widely as the user authentication journeys themselves. Modern Authentication for Multiple User Journeys – Best Guidance
  • July 18, 2022. Mariam Baksh, Nextgov. Microsoft, AWS, VMWare, Cisco Systems and Samsung are among 12 companies the National Institute of Standards and Technology has selected to guide the nation’s migration to cryptographic standards that are immune to the computation powers of a quantum machine.  NIST Selects 12 Companies for Implementing Post-Quantum Cryptography

Defense, Military, Security, Space

  • July 19, 2022. Naval News. QinetiQ has won a £1.5m contract from the Royal Navy to trial the military effect of Banshee Jet80+ air vehicle off HMS Prince of Wales. This will take place later in 2022 as part of HMS Prince of Wales’ first deployment off the East coast of the USA. Banshee Air Vehicles to be deployed on board UK Aircraft Carrier
  • July 19, 2022. Naval News. The French Navy Aquitaine-class FREMM frigate FS Languedoc (D 654) and Italian Navy Carlo Bergamini-class FREMM frigate ITS Alpino (F 594) joined the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman (CVN 75) and the Harry S. Truman carrier strike group (HSTCSG) in the Mediterranean Sea in July 2022, a demonstration of the strong and enduring relationship among the three navies. French and Italian FREMMs join Harry S. Truman CSG
  • July 19, 2022. Jeff Foust, Space News. NASA has delayed the launch of an ice-prospecting lunar rover by a year to perform more testing of its commercial lander, the agency announced July 18. NASA delays VIPER lunar rover launch by a year
  • July 19, 2022. Jeff Foust, Space News. At the last Farnborough International Airshow in 2018, the United Kingdom started the countdown to the first orbital launch from the country. The U.K. Space Agency announced it selected a site near the town of Sutherland in northern Scotland to host a vertical launch facility, and awarded $38 million to two companies to perform launches there. Other launch companies and prospective spaceports also announced plans to develop and launch rockets in the county. The Great British Lift-Off
  • July 18, 2022. Andrew Eversden, Breaking Defense. The Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC) today released the text of its annual defense policy bill, boosting the department’s procurement and research funds by billions over its budget request. Senate Armed Services releases full $847 billion defense bill
  • July 18, 2022. Theresa Hitchens, Breaking Defense. The Space Development Agency (SDA) today announced L3Harris and Northrop Grumman as the winners in its $1.3 billion contest for development of a new constellation of missile tracking satellites capable of keeping tabs on Chinese and Russian hypersonic missiles. L3Harris, Northrop score $1.3B in SDA hypersonic missile tracking contracts
  • July 18, 2022. Jaspreet Gill. General Dynamics Information Technology will provide network and IT support to US Air Forces in Europe in under a new contract worth up to $908 million, the company announced today. GDIT nabs $908M US Air Force IT contract in Europe
  • July 18, 2022. Lauren C. Williams, Defense One. Two companies will build 28 satellite prototypes with enhanced missile-tracking abilities—and the promise of being able to keep up with next-generation hypersonics—after a $1.3 billion award, defense officials announced Monday. Hypersonic Missile-Tracking Satellites Greenlit For Development
  • July 18, 2022. John Conger, Defense One. When it comes to hardening military infrastructure against climate change, the good news is that a Norfolk, Virginia, flood-control effort and some other projects are coming to fruition. The bad news is that far too little work is underway elsewhere—and while major construction projects can take a decade to complete, floods and extreme weather are already here and will get worse. As lawmakers debate the 2023 budget request, they must remember that the kind of resilience and energy-efficiency efforts proposed by the Departments of Defense, State, and Homeland Security are not just urgent but overdue and in need of acceleration. A Success in Norfolk Should Also Be a Warning
  • July 18, 2022. Kristi Govella, East Asia Forum. 2022 was expected to be a defining year for Japanese security policy even before the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Public debates and internal negotiations have been ongoing for months over the country’s forthcoming National Security Strategy, National Defence Program Guidelines and Medium-Term Defence Force Program. But the Ukraine war could set the scene for a ‘critical juncture’ in Japanese defence policy making, providing the government an opportunity to enact major changes that may not have been possible before. Japan’s defence policy faces a critical juncture
  • July 18, 2022. Dumitru Minzarari, The Jamestown Foundation. A key debate has emerged in Moldovan and European media surrounding how the European Union’s granting of candidate status to Moldova has affected the republic’s national security and regional affairs. Usually, this issue is referred to in the context of undermining the effective resolution of the Transnistrian conflict and upsetting Russia, consequently attracting political or military aversion within Moldova. Internally, similar arguments—including Moldova tuning up its foreign policy to better integrate with that of the EU—are used by Russian political proxies and Russian-funded media outlets to frighten the population with the risk of a Russian invasion and to threaten the government. Moldova Shows Modest Revisions on National Defense and Security
  • July 18, 2022. CSIS. Maritime Security Dialogue: A Discussion with the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps

Digital & Tech

  • July 19, 2022. Ivan Mehta, TechCrunch. Russia fined Google 21.1 billion rubles ($374 million) on Monday for repeatedly failing to “remove prohibited information” — content related to the country’s invasion and subsequent war in Ukraine. The country’s telecommunication watchdog Roskomnadzor cited a court order and said Google (particularly YouTube) didn’t take down content that discredited “the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.”. Russia hits Google with a $375M fine for allowing ‘prohibited’ Ukraine news on its platforms
  • July 18, 2022. , Info Security. The UK government has set out proposals for a new AI rulebook to unleash innovation and boost public trust in the technology, according to a policy paper published today by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. The report outlines the government’s approach to regulating the technology in the UK, with proposed rules addressing future risks and opportunities so businesses are clear how they can develop and use AI systems, and consumers are confident they are safe and robust.  DCMS Sets Out Proposal For New AI Rulebook
  • July 18, 2022. Samantha Lai and Brooke Tanner, Brookings. For historically marginalized groups, the right to privacy is a matter of survival. Privacy violations have put these groups at risk of ostracization, discrimination, or even active physical danger. These tensions have long pre-dated the digital age. In the 1950s and 1960s, the government used surveillance programs to target Black Americans fighting against structural racism, with the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Counterintelligence Program (COINTELPRO) targeting Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and members of the Black Panther Party. During the HIV/AIDs epidemic, LGBTQ+ individuals were fearful that with an employer-based healthcare system, employers would find out about a doctor’s visit for HIV/ AIDS and that individuals would then face stigma at work or risk losing their jobs. Examining the intersection of data privacy and civil rights

Energy

  • July 19, 2022. World Nuclear News. Unit 1 of the Shin Hanul nuclear power plant entered test operation on 15 July, South Korea’s Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced. The unit – the first of four APR-1400 reactors at the site – is scheduled to enter commercial operation in September. Shin Hanul 1 in test operation : New Nuclear
  • July 19, 2022. World Nuclear News. The French nuclear regulator Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire (ASN) says that “to ensure the security of the electricity network” it will temporarily modify the strict rules regulating the maximum temperature of cooling water released from some nuclear power plants as the country is in the grips of a summer heatwave. Heatwave forces temporary change to water-discharge rules in France : Regulation & Safety
  • July 19, 2022. World Nuclear News. Western Australia-based Paladin Energy Limited has decided to return the Langer Heinrich uranium mine in Namibia to production in the first quarter of 2024. The company said the decision to resume operation of the mine, which was suspended in 2018 due to low uranium prices, is supported by a strong uranium market. Paladin to restart Langer Heinrich uranium mine : Uranium & Fuel
  • July 18, 2022. World Nuclear News. The Belgian government has asked energy company Engie to see if it can extend the operating life of Tihange unit 2 until the end of the winter peak electricity season – but the company says it is not possible to do so at such short notice. Belgium asks Engie to extend Tihange 2’s life : Regulation & Safety
  • July 18, 2022. World Nuclear News. The Environment Agency has launched a four-week public consultation on NNB Generation Company (HPC) Limited’s decision to store used nuclear fuel at the Hinkley Point C nuclear power plant under construction in Somerset, England, in a dry storage facility rather than a wet facility as originally planned. Dry used fuel storage facility now planned for HPC : New Nuclear

Health & Digital

  • July 19, 2022. Devin Coldewey, TechCrunch. What goes on in that gastrointestinal tract of yours? Well, we have a general idea, but evidence is mounting that the gut and the microbes that live there play an important role in a huge variety of health issues. Persephone is a biotech startup that — with the help of $15 million and a lot of poop — is building a library of the human microbiome and assembling a best-of list of helpful life forms that could do everything from easing digestion to fighting serious disease. Persephone puts poop to work to explore and heal your gut microbiome

Global 

  • July 19, 2022. Valdai Discussion Club. The Ukrainian crisis has launched the processes of a global divide: between the West and the Non-West, writes Valdai Club Programme Director Andrey Sushentsov. In Europe, the new watershed means a military-political confrontation between Russia and NATO, following the patterns of the deep European security crisis of the 1970s and 1980s, when the parties were close to a nuclear war, but one never took place. Outside the European continent, the Non-West is now actively taking stock of its relations with the Euro-Atlantic states. Strategy of Sentimentality in EU Foreign Policy
  • July 18, 2022. Valdai Discussion Club. In 1944, the Bretton Woods System was de facto created by two states (the United States and Britain), which at that time had the authority and resources to impose their will on four dozen states that were guided by them during the world war. Today there is no state or group of countries on the planet capable of imposing its will on the entire world community. A new or radically reformed Bretton Woods, of course, should take into account the opinion of all the states of the planet, regardless of their size. The solution of such a problem through negotiations will last for many years, while the likelihood of success will be minimal, writes Valdai Club expert Stanislav Tkachenko. Reforming the Bretton Woods System: The Main Ways

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