mercoledì, Agosto 10, 2022

CASA BIANCA: UN REPORT SU TECNOLOGIE CLOUD E INTELLIGENZA ARTIFICIALE

FOCUS

July 19, 2022. Alexandra Kelley, Nextgov. Federal agencies that want to successfully scale and implement cloud computing systems into existing infrastructure can do so through several key practices, including designating expert teams, two-factor authentication, and enhanced education opportunities among users. Outlined in a White House report published earlier this month, officials documented how cloud computing systems can support further federal research and development in artificial intelligence, a goal within the broader Biden administration.  White House Advocates Cloud Investment as a Path to Artificial Intelligence

AROUND THE WORLD

Afghanistan

ASEAN – Indo-Pacific

  • July 20, 2022. Shafiah F Muhibat, East Asia Forum. What is the future of the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific (AOIP)? Nearly three years after its finalisation, there have been hardly any efforts to operationalise the report from within ASEAN or through engagement with ASEAN Dialogue Partners. Looking beyond the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific

Azerbaijan

Belarus

Central Asia

China

  • July 20, 2022. Albert Zhang, Tilla Hoja, The Strategist. The Chinese Communist Party is using social media and disinformation campaigns to project its preferred narratives about Xinjiang and influence unwitting audiences around the globe. Instead of improving its treatment of Uyghurs and other Turkic minorities, the CCP is responding to critiques of its human rights record by coordinating its state propaganda apparatus, security agencies and public relations industry to influence and even silence governments, businesses and civil society at home and abroad. China’s information operations are silencing and influencing global audiences on Xinjiang
  • July 20, 2022. Trisha Ray, ORF. At the May meeting of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), President Xi bore down on the country’s “dynamic clearing” or zero-COVID policy. Despite discontent following lockdowns in Shanghai and elsewhere this year, the Standing Committee pronounced the policy a resounding success, stating that just as they had won the “battle for Wuhan”, they will defend Shanghai as well. Shanghai lockdown’s lasting legacy, however, will be in the simmering dissent it elicited, in the face of a months-long shutdown and food shortages. Residents in the Jing’an district banged pots and pans, some took to their balconies to sing songs of protest (followed by the unforgettable imagery of a drone announcing “Please comply with COVID restrictions. Control your soul’s desire for freedom. Do not open the window or sing.”). Long COVID: The pandemic’s shadow on data and dissent in China

Europe

  • July 19, 2022. Leonardo Cadamuro, Scott Marcus, Francesco Papadia, Bruegel. This paper quantitatively describes different aspects of the COVID-19 pandemics: new cases, hospitalisations, intensive-care admissions and deaths, while illustrating their changing relationships over time. It then assesses how the different variables have affected relevant sectoral and macroeconomic indicators. Finally, it concludes that, from an economic perspective, what matters when it comes to managing the pandemic is to prevent intensive-care admissions and deaths arising from COVID-19. The success of vaccination should be measured in terms of its ability to prevent the most serious consequences, rather than its ability to prevent infections and hospitalisations. COVID-19 in the European Union: health impacts and effects on economic activity

India – Afghanistan

  • July 20, 2022. Manoj Joshi, East Asia Forum. Despite being knocked off its feet by the collapse of the Ghani government of Afghanistan in mid-August 2021, New Delhi has quickly re-established its presence in the new Taliban-led Afghanistan. India’s cautious return to Afghanistan

Indonesia

  • July 20, 2022. Kyunghoon Kim, The Interpreter. Since President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) entered office in 2014, his priority has been infrastructure construction, with his re-election in 2019 partly due to the government’s performance in the area. Infrastructure investment as a share of total government expenditure almost doubled from 8.6 per cent in 2012–14 to 16.1 per cent in 2017–19. At the same time, Jokowi expanded and mobilised state enterprises to carry out large strategic projects. The results were impressive: for example, 3,387 kilometres of new roads and 1,147 kilometres of new railways were constructed between 2015 and 2019. The Indonesia Investment Authority: Jokowi’s trouble-shooter?

Iran

  • July 19, 2022. Raz Zimmt, INSS. The arrest of regime critics, imprisonment of cultural figures, and strict enforcement of wearing the hijab in public areas: one year after the conservative President Raisi was elected, Iranian authorities have stepped up civil repression. What has prompted this policy change, and how might it negatively affect the Islamic regime? Mounting Political and Civil Repression in Iran

Japan

  • June 20, 2022. Yusaku Yoshikawa, The Interpreter. Japan is famous for its “mottainai” culture, often translated as “what a waste!”, which encourages people to reduce what is discarded from their everyday lives. At the same time, Japan’s government, as well as the country’s private sector and citizens, are struggling to reduce the most ubiquitous wastage – food loss and waste. What a waste! Japan’s food sustainability challenge
  • July 20, 2022. Pinak Chakravarty, ORF. In a peaceful country known for discipline, hard work, and innovation, overcoming the devastation of the Second World War and the two nuclear attacks, Japan has few peers. It was consequently, a tsunami of shock that spread across the world when the news of the assassination of Shinzo Abe spread. Abe was assassinated while addressing a small crowd at a street corner election rally, in the city of Nara. The global outrage was spontaneous and widespread, in recognition of Shinzo Abe’s sterling qualities as a political leader and visionary, both in the domestic and international arenas. Abe’s demise leaves a huge void in Japan’s politics and his Liberal Democratic Party [LDP] which currently holds the reins of the government. Shinzo Abe: A statesman who saw the future

Kazakhstan

  • July 19, 2022. Paul Globe, The Jamestown Foundation. The Kremlin had expected its relationship to improve with Kazakhstan following Russia’s intervention to support Kazakhstani President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev’s government against violent rioters early this year. Instead, since then, relations have deteriorated seriously due to Nur-Sultan’s refusal to support Moscow’s policies in Ukraine (see EDM, May 12). Recently, interactions between the two countries took yet another dive as Tokayev declared that Kazakhstan will seek to attract Western businesses fleeing Russia due to the sanctions regime there. He also mentioned that Nur-Sultan will no longer consult Moscow on financial and currency matters via the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and that Kazakhstan will build its own military and seek to expand ties with the West. Kazakhstan Seeks to Attract Western Companies Leaving Russia, Infuriating Moscow

Kenya

Morocco

  • July 19, 2022. HRW. One year after his arrest at Casablanca airport, Yidiresi Aishan, also known as Idris Hasan, a Uyghur activist, remains under threat of extradition from Morocco to China, where there are substantial grounds to believe that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture, 45 human rights organizations said today. Morocco: Uyghur Activist at Risk of Extradition

Myanmar

  • July 19, 2022. HRW. Myanmar’s abusive junta will obtain an increased stake in the country’s largest oil and gas field when the French company TotalEnergies withdraws from Myanmar on July 20, 2022, Human Rights Watch said today. TotalEnergies’ shares will be divided proportionally among the remaining three partners – US-based Chevron, Thai-based PTTEP, and the junta-controlled Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE). Myanmar: TotalEnergies Withdraws; Junta Gains

Nicaragua

  • July 19, 2022. HRW. Nicaraguan authorities have closed hundreds of nongovernmental organizations, applying highly restrictive legislation that undermines freedom of association and freedom of expression, Human Rights Watch said today. Concerned governments, especially from Latin America, should condemn this systematic dismantling of civil society groups, which play a critical role in a country that has no independent state institutions left to act as a check on executive power. Nicaragua: Government Dismantles Civil Society

Russia

  • July 19, 2022. Kseniya Kirillova, The Jamestown Foundation.  Pro-Kremlin sociologists record an extremely low level of protest activity in Russia against the background of the Ukrainian war. In particular, the Social Opinion Fund notes that only about 15 to 25 percent of citizens are inclined to express open disagreement in today’s Russia (Media.fom.ru, July 8). Telegram channels loyal to the Kremlin connect this tendency to social disapproval with protests in time of war, sanctions from the authorities and the elimination of nonsystemic opposition from the internal Russian information space (Tgstat.ru, July 10). Is a Military Coup Expected in Russia?

Russia – India

  • July 20, 2022. Anuradha Chenoy, Valdai Discussion Club. India-Russia relations, which have been time-tested, consistent and mutually beneficial, have gone through a trial by fire in recent days.  India withstood collective Western pressure as it took a position of neutrality and subtle support for Russia as the Western alliance went hammer and tongs against the Russian operation in Ukraine. India has chosen not to endorse the West’s effort to isolate and condemn Russia in several international forms. We examine the Indian position on Russia in the context of a transformative international order and ask: has there been a greater renewal in relations? Russia-India Relations in a Transformative World Order

Russia – Ukraine

  • July 19, 2022. Elizabeth Hoffman, CSIS. The United States’ support of Ukraine following the Russian invasion has been a glimmer of solidarity and bipartisanship in an otherwise increasingly polarized political environment. Even five months into the conflict, 6 in 10 Americans supported continued weapons and financial aid to Ukraine amid the ongoing conflict. However, the question that seems to be missing from the conversation is U.S. support for Russian civil society and those challenging the authoritarian rule of Russian president Vladimir Putin inside Russia. Amplified U.S. Support for Russian Civil Society Is Key in the Fight for Ukraine
  • July 19, 2022. Justin Katz, Breaking Defense. Ukraine’s defense minister today dismissed concerns that weaponry sent to Ukraine by the United States and other nations could be diverted into the dark world of illegal arms trafficking, calling the worry “artificially engineered.”. Amid flow of weapons to Ukraine, DefMin says black market smuggling is ‘artificial’ concern
  • July 19, 2022. Jacqueline Feldscher, Defense One. Russia is preparing to annex parts of eastern Ukraine following the same “playbook” it used to illegally seize Crimea in 2014, a White House official said Tuesday.  Russia Following 2014 ‘Annexation Playbook’ In Eastern Ukraine, White House Says
  • July 19, 2022. Patrick Tucker, Defense One. The recent addition of new long-range fires capabilities to Ukraine’s arsenal has played a key role in defending against stalled Russian forces. But additional mobile rocket batteries and longer-range rockets would allow Ukraine to mount more effective counter attacks and reclaim territory stolen by Russia, Oleksii Reznikov, minister of defense of Ukraine, said Tuesday.  Ukraine Says It Needs at Least 100 HIMARS and Longer-Range Rockets
  • July 19, 2022. Karolina Hird, George Barros, Katherine Lawlor, Layne Philipson, and Frederick W. Kagan, ISW. Calls among Russian nationalist and pro-war voices for Russian President Vladimir Putin to expand Russia’s war aims, mobilize the state fully for war, and drop the pretext that Russia is not engaged in a war reached a crescendo on July 19. Former Russian militant commander and nationalist milblogger Igor Girkin presented an extensive list of military, economic, and political actions that he argues the Kremlin must take to win the war in Ukraine; first among this list is abandoning the rhetoric of the “special military operation” and defining the official goals of the war in Ukraine. Girkin advocated for expansive territorial aims beyond the Kremlin’s stated ambitions in Donbas, including the reunification of the entire territory of “Novorossiya” (which Girkin maintains includes Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Zaporizhzhia, Kherson, Donetsk, and Luhansk oblasts as well as Kryvyi Rih) with the Russian Federation and the creation of a Malorossiya state (all of Ukraine up to the Polish border), which Girkin claims should be reunified with Russia through the Russia-Belarus Union State. Girkin also called for the Kremlin to shift the Russian economy fully to a war footing and to carry out extensive mobilization measures including forced conscription and the (further) suspension of Russians’ rights. Girkin has often criticized what he views as a lack of ambition and decisive action in the Kremlin’s handling of the war in Ukraine through his calls for maximalist objectives and measures to support territorial gains. His newest list of demands adds to the growing discontent within the Russian pro-war nationalist zeitgeist. Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, July 19
  • July 19, 2022.  Dan Peleschuk, Atlantic Council. Nearly five months into Russia’s unprovoked invasion of its neighbor—and amid fears of fading Western support for Kyiv—Ukrainian Defense Minister Oleksii Reznikov remains hopeful that his country can emerge victorious. Ukraine’s defense minister: With the right weapons, ‘Russia can definitely be defeated’

Sri Lanka – India

  • July 19, 2022. Ganeshan Wignaraja, East Asia Forum. Sri Lanka’s pre-emptive default on its foreign debt obligations in mid-April 2022 and recently resigned president Gotabaya Rajapaksa’s flight from Sri Lanka on 12 July provides India with an opportunity to match China in the foreign aid game. The Indian government plans to hold an all-party meeting on the Sri Lankan crisis on 19 July and Sri Lanka’s parliament is expected to elect a new President from among MPs on 20 July.  India mulls aid in Sri Lanka’s hour of need

USA

  • July 20, 2022.  Paul C. Light, Nextgov. Americans head into the 2022 midterm election season with record-setting doubts about the federal government’s faithful execution of the laws. Public demand for comprehensive government reform is at a 20-year high, while confidence in government has dropped to a historic low. The thickening of government with layers of management has continued unabated, and support for government careers has slipped below 40 percent. Absent large-scale repairs to renew and repair and renew the federal sprawling federal bureaucracy, Americans have good reason to ask whether the government can deliver on the promises it makes.  More Americans Want ‘Very Major’ Government Reform

USA – Japan

  • July 19, 2022. Christopher B. Johnstone, CSIS. When Prime Minister Fumio Kishida assumed office in September 2021, he had a reputation for caution, and—following on the heels of Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga’s brief tenure in office—there were widespread concerns in Washington about a return to weak, revolving door leadership in Tokyo. But Kishida has defied expectations. He quickly joined the G7 in imposing sweeping sanctions on Russia following the invasion of Ukraine, and has provided robust support to Kyiv—including, for the first time, a package of nonlethal security assistance. He has sought to rally the Indo-Pacific region to the cause, pushing back against Beijing and Moscow’s deepening alignment and warning in a speech in Singapore in June that “Ukraine today could be East Asia tomorrow.” He has sustained a high diplomatic tempo, hosting the Quad—the leaders of Australia, India, and the United States, along with Japan—in May, joining the NATO leader’s summit for the first time in June, and meeting regularly with leaders in Southeast Asia. His leadership was instrumental to the successful launch of President Biden’s Indo-Pacific Economic Forum (IPEF) in Tokyo in May. After nearly a year in office, Kishida has reinforced Japan’s place as the United States’ most critical ally in the Indo-Pacific. Now the Real Work Begins: The U.S.-Japan Alliance after the Upper House Elections

USA – Middle East

  • July 19, 2022. Jonathan Panikoff, Atlantic Council. Last Wednesday, somewhere over the Atlantic Ocean, US National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan informed reporters traveling with Joe Biden to the Middle East that the president would not be shaking hands during his trip. The stated reason was the recent uptick in COVID-19. But in reality, the White House—which less than forty-eight hours earlier had brought together a large crowd to celebrate the passage of new gun-control legislation—was spooked by the optics of shaking hands with Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (also known as MBS), the man accused of ordering the murder of Washington Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi. A tale of two greetings: Decoding Biden’s hand-to-hand diplomacy in the Middle East
  • July 19, 2022.  Kirsten Fontenrose, Atlantic Council. Don’t be distracted by the fist bump. Assumptions about the greeting between US President Joe Biden and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (better known as MBS) during the former’s visit to the kingdom last week are overblown. Despite the outsize coverage of the visit, the takeaways for both sides were less than thrilling. Why Biden’s Mideast trip was much ado about very little

Uzbekistan

  • July 19, 2022. Fozil Mashrab, The Jamestown Foundation. On 20 June, Uzbekistani President Shavkat Mirziyoyev chaired a meeting dedicated to changes and amendments to the national constitution. After dwelling on the reforms related to strengthening the protection of human rights and improving state administrative functions, President Mirziyoyev went on to propose that several principles related to Uzbekistan’s foreign policy should be enshrined in the new constitution. In Mirziyoyev’s view, these principles include generally building peaceful and friendly relations across the world and primarily with neighboring countries, upholding the respect for human rights and freedom in international relations and conducting interstate relations by strictly adhering to the principle of territorial integrity. Uzbekistan Seeks to Enshrine Pragmatic Foreign Policy With Wider Constitutional Reforms

TOPICS

Cities

  • July 20, 2022. Abhinav Madhavanunni, Anuttama Dasgupta, ORF. The concept of smart cities in urban planning first emerged in 1990 along with the World Wide Web. The notion of smart cities has its roots in urban planning whereas the internet emerged from the need to document, store, and exchange all human knowledge and information. Despite distinct purposes, both smart cities and internet seem to share a 100-year history of co-evolution which goes back to some of the early concepts brought forth by “the father of modern town planning”, Patrick Geddes. This article attempts to explore not just how the internet is integral to the development of smart cities but also how urban planning, over a long period of time, has influenced the idea of the internet. The road to Smart City planning: A historical co-evolution of urban planning and information systems

Cybersecurity

  • July 19, 2022. Mariam Baksh, Nextgov. The Justice Department will return an estimated half a million dollars it seized from money launderers based in China to victims of ransomware attacks attributed to North Korea, officials announced Tuesday while imploring victims to report their ransom payments to federal authorities. Justice Recovered $500K for Victims, Traced Ransomware Payments to China

Defense, Intelligence, Military, Security, Space

  • July 20, 2022. , The Strategist. Activities in space matter for national security, not least because of the significance of remote-sensing technologies in gathering intelligence and data. Any weaponisation of space presents obvious national security challenges. Continued safe access to space, and also to launch sites, will be key in securing essential information, such as that used to monitor military activity and climate events, and in delivering humanitarian aid. Developing Australia’s role in space is vital for national security
  • July 20, 2022. Tamir Hayman, Sima Shine, INSS. The heightened discussion of a “regional air defense alliance” was met by increased Iranian activity to block any such measure, including explicit threats that in turn prompted rejection of the idea by senior Gulf figures. It appears that at this stage, relations between Israel and the Gulf states that remain below the radar are preferable to grandiose public statements that do match the reality on the ground. Tehran Heightens the Pressure as it Strives to Thwart a Regional Air Defense System
  • July 19, 2022. Anthony H. Cordesman, CSIS. The Ukraine war has many lessons for NATO, but one of the key lessons is the need to rethink the linkage between its force planning and its defense industrial base. Some of these lessons reinforce the lessons of past national, NATO, and EU studies. Some illustrate the need to take a new approach to shaping the industrial base of NATO states and their strategic partners, and some are tied to the need to look beyond defense and to look at the national and collective trends in terms of grand strategy.  NATO Force Planning: Rethinking the Defense Industrial Base

Digital & Tech 

  • July 20, 2022. Aisha Malik, TechCrunch. Instagram has announced a new feature that allows businesses to boost their Reels to turn them into ads in order to reach new audiences. Boosted Reels will appear in feed, Stories, the Reels tab and the explore page. To be eligible to boost your Reel, the Reel must be less than 60 seconds and have a 9:16 aspect ratio, which means it must be filmed vertically and have a full-screen format. Instagram’s new ‘Boost’ feature lets businesses turn Reels into ads
  • July 20, 2022. Aisha Malik, TechCrunch. Tedooo, a Tel Aviv-based social network marketed towards the trade world, has raised $3 million in seed funding led by Stardom Ventures. The platform is designed to help boost and create global trade communities via partnerships between sellers and buyers. Tedooo’s current main focus is the handmade crafts and DIY industry in English-speaking countries. Tedooo raises $3M to scale its social network for buyers and sellers
  • July 20, 2022. Kyle Wiggers, TechCrunch. In both down times and boom times, businesses across industries are faced with the challenge of building sales pipelines and closing revenue. “Account-based” intelligence — i.e., research into potential customers — can help during the prospecting process. But it requires a thorough, vetted source of information and contacts in departments like business development, sales and recruiting. Crunchbase looks to grow its database of startups with $50M in new cash
  • July 19, 2022. Edward Graham, Nextgov. Federal agencies are having success migrating to cloud services, but training employees to use the new technology and navigating regulatory hurdles are still factors that must be addressed during the transition, federal IT experts explained during the Advanced Technology Academic Research Center’s 2022 Cloud Migration Virtual Summit on Tuesday. Federal Agencies Invest More Each Year in Cloud as Benefits Outweigh Challenges

Energy

  • July 20, 2022. World Nuclear News. The first safety-related concrete has been poured for the nuclear island of unit 1 of the El Dabaa nuclear power plant in Egypt. It marks the official start of construction of the first of four Russian-supplied VVER-1200 reactors at the site on the country’s Mediterranean coast. Construction of Egypt’s first nuclear power plant under way : New Nuclear
  • July 20, 2022. World Nuclear News. Fusion energy company TAE Technologies has received investments to fund the construction of its sixth-generation research reactor that it says will demonstrate the viability of net energy from TAE’s approach. The announcement came as TAE’s fifth-generation reactor, Norman, has sustained stable plasma at more than 75 million degrees Celsius, 250% higher than its original goal. TAE Technologies secures funds to build next fusion machine : New Nuclear
  • July 18, 2022. Ben McWilliams, Bruegel. Global oil markets are stretched to the limit. Post-COVID-19 travel demand is roaring and capacity constraints in the system are pushing prices to record highs. While attention has focussed on OPEC and their regulation of crude oil supply, refiners and the available capacity to process crude oil into useful oil products (diesel, gasoline and kerosene) are just as critical to high prices today. What role for China in the global refining crunch?
  • July 20, 2022. World Nuclear News. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted its first Integrated Research Reactor Utilization Review (IRRUR) mission. An international team of experts carried out a thorough assessment of the way in which Chile’s RECH-1 research reactor is currently being used and its potential capabilities. IAEA team assesses utilisation of Chilean research reactor : Regulation & Safety
  • July 19, 2022. Guangzhe Chen, World Bank blogs. South Asia has witnessed a growth in energy demand over the past two decades, increasing by over 50 percent since 2000. Rising demand has been driven by factors such as an increasing population and growth in the manufacturing sector. In Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka in particular, electricity demand has grown on average by more than five percent annually over the past two decades and is expected to more than double by 2050. An integrated electricity market in South Asia is key to energy security
  • July 19, 2022. Peter Nagle, Kaltrina Temaj, World Bank blogs. The recent surge in natural gas and coal prices has been so swift that the main benchmarks were roughly three times higher in 2022Q2 compared to a year earlier. European natural gas and South African coal prices reached all-time highs in March and April, while U.S. natural gas prices reached their highest level since 2008. The surge in prices partly reflects the impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine; in 2020, Russia accounted for one-quarter of global exports of natural gas and just under one-fifth of coal exports. Beyond the impact of the war, demand for natural gas and coal has been robust, rising by about 5 and 6 percent, respectively, in 2021 amid a strong post-pandemic recovery, with both reaching record highs. Energy market developments: Coal and natural gas prices reach record highs

Health & Digital

Global 

  • July 19, 2022. Maria Demertzis, Bruegel. The last time the euro was at parity with the dollar was 20 years ago in November 2002. The current situation of an almost one-to-one exchange is therefore an event of some economic significance. It is not, however, representative of the euro’s value relative to the dollar. Rather the current parity has a lot more to do with the dollar appreciating rather than the euro falling. Monetary policy cycles in the United States and euro area are not in sync currently, with US rates rising much faster than in the euro area, therefore pushing the value of the dollar.  Euro-dollar parity: beyond symbolism

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