lunedì, Giugno 27, 2022

LA FED E LA CYBERSECURITY

FOCUS

  • June 15, 2022. By  Giulia Fanti, Kari Kostiainen, William Howlett, Josh Lipsky, Ole Moehr, John Paul Schnapper-Casteras, and Josephine Wolff, Atlantic Council. The challenge of securing the dollar dates back to the earliest days of the United States. Benjamin Franklin famously printed currency with the phrase “to counterfeit is death”—and colonial England used fake currency to try to devalue the Continental Dollar during the American Revolution. In the modern era, security issues have multiplied with the rise of the Internet and the threat of cyberattacks. The United States Federal Reserve (Fed) considers cybersecurity a top priority and sees securing both the dollar and the international financial system as a core national security challenge. We are entering a new era of security and currency, one that requires responsible innovations in digital currency. This report examines the novel cybersecurity implications that could emerge if the United States issues a government-backed digital currency—known as a central bank digital currency (CBDC) or “digital dollar.”. Missing Key: The challenge of cybersecurity and central bank digital currency

THINK TANKS AND GLOBAL NEWS

AROUND THE WORD

Africa

Australia

  • June 16, 2022. By HRW. Australia’s new prime minister, Anthony Albanese, should adopt an ambitious human rights-centered foreign policy agenda and initiate urgent domestic rights reforms, Human Rights Watch said today in a letter to Prime Minister Albanese and Foreign Minister Penny Wong. Australia: Prioritize Rights at Home, Abroad

Australia – Indonesia

  • June 16, 2022. By Greg Earl, The Interpreter. Prime Minister Anthony Albanese made a textbook start to re-engagement with Indonesia taking a substantial delegation of ministers and businesspeople on his first bilateral visit – and then getting out of Jakarta to the broader country in Makassar. Economic diplomacy: New supply chains to Jakarta and beyond

Canada

China

Europe – Israel – Egypt

Finland 

India

India – Gulf Region

Indo – Pacific

  • June 16, 2022. By Henry Storey, The Interpreter. Since its resurrection in late 2017, the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) between Australia, India, Japan and the United States has gradually become a centrepiece of Australian foreign policy. Every effort was made to ensure that an exhausted Prime Minister Anthony Albanese attended the 24 May Quad summit in Tokyo, just three days after his election win. Why Australia shouldn’t put all its eggs in the Quad basket
  • June 15, 2022. By William Choong and Sharon Seah, East Asia Forum. The wilderness years of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (the Quad), after its initial inception during the 2004 Asian tsunami, are over. The latest summit in Tokyo reaffirmed its mission as a ‘force for good’ while promising a broad array of Indo-Pacific cyber security, maritime awareness, pandemic recovery, space, climate change and infrastructure initiatives. Broadening the Quad’s appeal in the Indo-Pacific
  • June 14, 2022. By Rajaram Panda, VIF. In past three months or so there has been a flurry of diplomatic activities in the Indo-Pacific region with top leaders visiting countries with a view to deepen the strategic relations and promote understanding on a host of bilateral and regional issues. The US has reacted strongly and has come up with counter-strategy when certain country tries to make inroads into what it considers its sphere of influence. Such developments with breath-taking rapidity have threatened to upset the existing balance of power in the Pacific. Diplomatic Engagements by Stakeholders in the Indo-Pacific Region

Iran

  • June 16, 2022. By Sima Shine, Ephraim Asculai, INSS. Although the nuclear talks in Vienna were renewed over a year ago, a return to the deal is not on the horizon, and the regime of the ayatollahs has increased the pace of its violations of the deal, which will make it even harder for the parties to reach understandings. The coming weeks will be critical, and at this point the world powers, as well as Israel, must prepare for a reality where there is no agreement, accompanied by troubling Iranian progress on its nuclear program. The Iranian Nuclear Program Advances, with only a Slim Chance of Restoring Nuclear Agreement

Iraq

Iraq – Kurdistan

Italy

  • June 16, 2022. By World Nuclear News. The dismantling of the former Fabbricazioni Nucleari di Bosco Marengo nuclear fuel fabrication plant has been successfully completed, Societa Gestione Impianti Nucleari SpA (Sogin), the Italian state-owned company responsible for dismantling the country’s nuclear power plants, has announced. It is the first decommissioned Italian nuclear facility to reach the so-called ‘brown field’ status. Dismantling of Italian nuclear fuel plant completed : Waste & Recycling

Japan

Pakistan

Russia

Russia – Armenia – Azerbaijan

  • June 15, 2022. By Vasif Huseynov, The Jamestown Foundation. On June 8–10, Russia’s Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov paid a two-day visit to Yerevan, where he met with Armenian leaders and attended a foreign ministerial session of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) (Armeniasputnik.am, June 8). His talks with the Armenian representatives and his statements concerning the Armenia-Azerbaijani peace negotiations received more attention from the media and local observers than the meeting of the CSTO, the latter of which did not yield anything of note (Odkb-csto.org, June 10). Lavrov’s Yerevan Visit Raises Questions in Armenia and Azerbaijan About Russian Regional Intentions

Russia – Czech Republic – Slovakia

  • June 15, 2022. By Daniel McVicar, The Jamestown Foundation. On May 31, Denmark’s largest energy company, Ørsted, and the Netherlands’ state-owned GasTerra became the latest victims of Russian natural gas supply termination for refusing to pay for this resource in Russian rubles, as demanded by President Vladimir Putin. In prior weeks, Moscow halted gas flows to Poland and Bulgaria, followed by Finland (TNCZ, May 30; see EDM, May 2). In contrast, the Baltic States had initiated a self-imposed Russian gas embargo in early April, preempting any possible gas blackmail from Moscow (EurActiv, April 4). Assessing Czech and Slovak Dependence on Russian Gas

Russia – Ukraine 

Sri Lanka

Sudan

Syria

  • June 16, 2022. By Al Jazeera. The US-led coalition has said it detained a senior leader of the ISIL (ISIS) group in Syria during an early-morning raid on Thursday. ISIL leader detained in Syria: US-led coalition
  • June 16, 2022. By Mohammed Hardan, Al-Monitor. The leader of Hayar Tahrir al-Sham (HTS) in Syria’s northwestern province of Idlib, Abu Mohammed al-Golani, continues to promote his image as moderate and close to the public through a series of propaganda efforts. On June 9, he inaugurated a well project to supply water to several villages of the Druze-majority Jabal al-Summaq area of the northern Idlib countryside. Syrian HTS leader courts Druze community in Idlib
  • June 16, 2022. By The Syrian Observer. Officials from Syria and Russia held a series of meetings to discuss further means to boost cooperation in different areas. Syria and Russia Discuss Cooperation in Various Fields
  • June 16, 2022. By The Syrian Observer. The fourth Syrian-Russian Joint Meeting kicked off in Damascus on Tuesday to return Syrian refugees to their country. More People Try to Immigrate from Govt-Held Regions in Syria
  • June 16, 2022. By The Syrian Observer. The scene of petrol queues has returned to the capital, Damascus, especially after one major gas station on the East Mezzeh Highway was burned down, and a number of the capital’s stations were closed and fined. Gasoline Queues Return to Damascus
  • June 16, 2022. By The Syrian Observer. The UN Secretary-General António Guterres  expressed his concern and alarm over the recent Israeli aggression that targeted southern Damascus and its international airport, saying that this would “lead to a broader conflict in an already volatile region.”. Guterres “Concerned” and “Disturbed” by Israeli Attack on Damascus Airport
  • June 16, 2022. By The Syrian Observer. The Syrian regime is exerting great pressure on the United Nations to finance its projects in energy, housing, services and industry sectors, as the UN is trying to satisfy all parties in a “problematic” and “illogical” way. Syrian Government Grabs More UN Agreements, Despite Sanctions
  • June 16, 2022. By The Syrian Observer. A director of a relief organization was killed on Wednesday when an improvised explosive device exploded in his car in the opposition-held city of al-Bab east of Aleppo province. Explosion Kills Relief Organization Director in Northern al-Bab
  • June 16, 2022. By The Syrian Observer. A session of official talks was held in the Kazakh capital this morning between the delegations of the Syrian Arab Republic headed by Dr. Ayman Sousan, Assistant Foreign and Expatriates Minister, and the delegation of the Russian Federation headed by Alexander Lavrentiev, the Russian President’s Special Envoy to Syria. Syria Rejects Turkish Regime’s Pretexts for Aggression

Ukraine – Romania

  • June 16, 2022. By Alexandra Radu, Al Jazeera. The Romanian Black Sea port in the city of Constanta has become one of the main transit hubs for Ukrainian grain export, with the war-torn country in a race against time to export about 20 million tonnes of grain stuck in its silos in time to accommodate the harvest of its new crops, which is set to start next month. Romanian port becomes key transit hub for Ukrainian grain

USA 

  • June 16, 2022. By Mark Melchionna, Health IT Analytics. While reviewing data from the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers from the Washington Poison Center (WAPC) found that there was a substantial increase in reports of self-harm and suicide among the adolescent population. New Data Reveals Massive Spike in Self-Harm, Suicide Calls Among Adolescents
  • June 16, 2022. By World Nuclear News. Nuclear fuel innovation company Clean Core Thorium Energy has signed a new strategic partnership agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) which details next steps for irradiation testing and qualification of its Advanced Nuclear Energy for Enriched Life (ANEEL) fuel in Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Advanced Test Reactor. Clean Core prepares for testing of innovative fuel : Uranium & Fuel
  • June 15, 2022. By Vanessa Williamson, Brookings. The January 6 committee has demonstrated exactly how close the United States came to a coup last year. But, as we consider the risks facing American democracy, the aftermath of another election is equally worthy of our attention. In the year 2000, the presidential election came down to a single state with serious election administration issues and a margin of a few hundred votes; the election was ultimately determined when the Supreme Court’s conservative majority, surprising many legal observers, decided to stop the recount in Florida. Now consider what it would look like if 2024 is a replay of the 2000 election. It raises the painful question: if the formal institutions of the United States fail to protect the integrity of our elections, what then? Will Pennsylvania in 2024 be like Florida in 2000?
  • June 15, 2022. By Elaine Kamarck, Brookings. In the hearing room on Capitol Hill this week, a parade of Trump advisors testified that they tried to tell the President that he had lost the 2020 election. It’s possible that Trump knew he had lost but decided to pursue another, more cynical route to power by persisting in what’s come to be known as the “Big Lie.” Or it’s possible that Trump’s narcissism was so powerful that he simply couldn’t believe the experts and pursued the Big Lie out of a delusional fantasy. Sorting this out will keep historians and psychiatrists busy for years to come. In the meantime, however, the Big Lie has become a prominent feature of some Republican primary races around the country and one more way of measuring Donald Trump’s strength within the Republican Party. What impact are the events of January 6 having on the Republican primaries?
  • June 15, 2022. By Tom Wheeler, Brookings. As the U.S. Senate prepares to vote on updating antitrust statutes to deal with new digital era abuses, the airwaves have been filled with emotional but fact-free advertising blasting any action. The Wall Street Journal headlined, “Big Tech Has Spent $36 Million on Ads to Torpedo Antitrust Bill,” and Politico reports the senate Majority Leader will not bring the legislation to the floor without 60 votes and that vulnerable Democrats may be backing off their support. History repeats itself with Big Tech’s misleading advertising
  • June 15, 2022. By Mary Blankenship and Carol Graham, Brookings. This has been a horrific month in America. While Ukrainians fight for their nation and their lives amid an aggressive Russian invasion, Americans are dealing with the slaughter of their schoolchildren and peaceful grocery shoppers (among others) by their own citizens. And yet at least half of our polity is unmoved and unwilling to support restrictive measures against gun ownership that have proven effective at stopping mass murders in at least 10 other wealthy countries, including the U.K., New Zealand, Scotland, and Australia. How cynicism and misinformation add to the emotional costs of gun violence
  • June 15, 2022. By Atlantic Council. Can they stop the runaway train? The US Federal Reserve hiked its benchmark interest rate by three-quarters of a percentage point Wednesday in an effort to curb rocketing inflation. The single biggest rate increase since 1994 will probably cool down the economy—but it will be a difficult balance to tame inflation without sending the world’s largest economy into a downward spiral. Our global economic experts take you behind the numbers to understand what’s next in this uncertain monetary moment for the United States and the wider world. FAST THINKING: The Fed pulls the emergency brake. Will it work?

Zimbabwe

DIGITAL, TECH

  • June 15, 2022. By Anastasia Tolstukhina, Valdai Discussion Club. Over the past few years, a long-term trend towards the regulation of technology giants has clearly emerged in many countries throughout the world. Interestingly, attempts to curb Big Tech are being made in the United States itself, where corporate headquarters are located. The Big 5 tech companies are well-known to everyone – Microsoft, Amazon, Meta (banned in Russia), Alphabet and Apple. From small IT companies, they quickly grew into corporate giants; their total capitalisation today is approximately $8 trillion (more than the GDP of most G20 countries). The concern of American regulators about the power of corporations arose not so much because of their unprecedented economic growth, but because of their ability to influence domestic politics, censor presidents, promote fake news, and so on. American Big Tech: No Rules
  • June 15, 2022. By George IngramJohn W. McArthur, and Priya Vora, Brookings. Digital technology is receiving growing attention in international dialogues on global prosperity and stability. In August 2021, the G-20 digital ministers identified ways digitalization can enhance the ability of the economy and government to contribute to a “resilient, strong, sustainable, and inclusive recovery” following COVID-19. In May 2022, the Indonesian government, as part of its G-20 presidency this year, encouraged the G-20 Digital Economy Working Group to prioritize digital connectivity, digital skills and literacy, and cross-border data flows. Meanwhile, for this year’s upcoming G-7 Summit at Schloss Elmau, the German presidency has proposed that the objective of “stronger together” should prioritize “social justice, equality, and inclusive digitalization.” . Digital public technology can help drive sustainable development progress

DEFENSE, MILITARY, SECURITY, CYBER

  • June 15, 2022. By Naval News. The French Navy kicked off multinational anti-submarine warfare (ASW) exercise called “SQUALE” in Toulon on June 13, 2022. French Navy kicks off “SQUALE” ASW exercise in Toulon
  • June 15, 2022. By Aaron Mehta, Breaking Defense. As NATO members work to figure out what Turkey will accept in exchange for allowing Sweden and Finland to join the alliance, an emerging question is whether Turkey would be allowed back into the F-35 program as part of the negotiations. HASC Chairman: Turkey ‘not coming back’ to F-35 program as NATO trade
  • June 15, 2022. By Andrew Eversden, Breaking Defense. The US Army’s “highest level” requirements for the next two phases of the Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle is for a tracked, medium-weight platform, a top general said, as the service looks to choose up to three vendors to move forward. Army details ‘highest level,’ but ‘not final’ OMFV requirements for next phases
  • June 15, 2022. By Jaspreet Gill, Breaking Defense. The Pentagon is still struggling to deliver working software for its weapon systems in a timely matter, with programs lagging behind commercial standards that call for deliveries as frequently as two weeks, according to a new watchdog report.  DoD software deliveries are lagging behind industry standards
  • June 15, 2022. By Barry Rosenberg, Breaking Defense. In mid-2021, a report on Future Vertical Lift (FVL) by the Center for Strategic Budgetary Assessments (CSBA) made a splash when it broke down the numbers for the program and determined that the Army could afford to buy both the Future Long-Range Assault Aircraft (FLRAA) and the Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA). Since the issuance of the report, much has changed in the world — from inflation to supply chain shortages to Russia’s attack on Ukraine. Last year, CSBA said the Army could afford both FVL variants. What’s changed since then?
  • June 15, 2022. By Breaking Defense. “The new state of conflict is a yet-to-be-fully-conceived blend of strategic weapons, tactical operations, and dominance in information warfare,” writes former DoD Chief Data Officer David Spirk. “And a new warfighting paradigm is needed to be competitive.”. Rethinking what conflict involves in the age of exponential data
  • June 15, 2022. By Jacqueline Feldscher, Defense One. NATO must station more forces in the Baltic nations to provide a more credible deterrent after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the Estonian defense secretary said Wednesday. ‘Obsolete’ NATO Force Presence in Baltics Needs Upgrade, Estonian Defense Leader Says
  • June 15, 2022. By Tara Copp, Defense One. A set of five planned U.S. missile-warning satellites are often described as “replacing” the Space-Based Infrared Systems satellites that currently keep an eye out for enemy launches. That’s not the case, a Space Systems Command leader said Wednesday. Tomorrow’s Missile-Warning Satellites Will Join SBIRS, Not Replace Them: Space Systems Command
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  • June 15, 2022. By Courtney Albon, Defense News. When Lt. Gen. Chance Saltzman thinks about how the Space Force will train its Guardians and test its systems in the future, he pictures an integrated, digital infrastructure. Saltzman, the service’s deputy chief of space operations, cyber and nuclear, envisions a future testing and training enterprise where space operators can connect virtually to practice tactics and new satellites and sensors are assessed in realistic simulated environments to make sure they’re working as designed. Space Force envisions digital future for testing and training
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  • June 15, 2022. By Dumitru Minzarari, The Jamestown Foundation. While Ukraine is engaged in an all-out effort to convince its Western partners to increase and speed up weapons assistance so that it can defend itself more effectively against Russian aggression, Moldova has taken a different tack. Ever since the start of the Russian re-invasion of Ukraine on February 24, the Moldovan authorities insisted there was no risk of that conflict spilling over into Moldova (Stiri.md, March 3); and they promised that the country faced no imminent security risk because of the war next door (Newsmaker.md, April 27). This mantra had become the standard response to all possible variations of questions directed at Moldovan officials regarding the government’s degree of preparedness to defend the country in case of military aggression. War in Ukraine, Public Pressure Compel Moldovan Authorities to Review National Defense Policy
  • June 15, 2022. By Anthony H. Cordesman, CSIS. At the best of times, the U.S. tends to rush out heavily politicized studies of the lessons of war that are more political ammunition than serious analyses, and while these are followed by long formal studies that are often quite good, they then are often ignored as the flow of events moves on. These are scarcely the best of times. The collapse of the Afghan government and forces has occurred during one of the most partisan periods in American politics, followed by a totally different kind of conflict in Ukraine, all while the U.S. focus on terrorism and regional conflicts that began with 9/11 has been replaced by a focus on competition with nuclear superpowers like Russia and China. The Lessons of the Afghan War That No One Will Want to Learn
  • June 15, 2022. By Matthew P. Funaiole, Joseph S. Bermudez Jr., Brian Hart, CSIS. Satellite imagery from June 14 reveals that the launch of China’s third aircraft carrier, the Type 003, is imminent. The dry dock where the carrier is positioned is now flooded and the vessel’s flight deck has been cleared—two telltale signs that CSIS previously flagged as part of the pre-launch checklist. Additionally, the blast deflectors for the catapults are raised and the elevators are in the up position. China Readies to Launch Its Newest, Most Advanced Aircraft Carrier
  • June 15, 2022. By Melanie W. Sisson, Brookings. The United States has a deterrence problem. Precisely what that problem is, however, depends upon whom you ask. The answer for some is that Washington suffers from an overall lack of credibility, caused by a recent past in which red lines in Syria were “written in disappearing ink” and threats of reprisal for Russian President Vladimir Putin’s aggression in Georgia in 2008 and Ukraine in 2014 were hollow. For others, the issue is Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin’s recent transition to “integrated deterrence” — a concept that elevates the role of non-military levers, such as diplomacy, economic sanctions, and information operations. Because this approach to deterrence mistakenly under-weights the importance of military might, they argue, it failed to protect Ukraine and for the same reason is unlikely to deter China from acting forcibly against Taiwan. America’s real deterrence problem
  • June 15, 2022. By Yurii Shchyhol, Atlantic Council. Ever since the dawn of the Internet Age, the potential to weaponize digital technologies as tools of international aggression has been known. This was underlined by Russia’s 2007 cyber-attack on Estonia, which was widely recognized as the first such act by one state against another. In 2016, NATO officially recognized cyberspace as a field of military operations alongside the more traditional domains of land, sea and air. Vladimir Putin’s Ukraine invasion is the world’s first full-scale cyberwar

HORIZONS

  • June 16, 2022. By Tom Keatinge, RUSI. The world mobilised against coronavirus; imagine if the same dedication and purpose of mission were applied to financial crime. Pandemic Lessons for the Financial Crime Community
  • June 16, 2022. By Chatham House. The rise of China is one of the greatest challenges for the transatlantic relationship. European countries and the US have similar concerns over China, but fundamental obstacles hinder a more joined-up approach. China and the transatlantic relationship
  • June 16, 2022. By Sameer Patil, Vivek Mishra, ORF. The end of the ongoing Ukrainian crisis and accordingly changing Euro-Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific theatres will together determine its impact on the transatlantic relations. Ukraine crisis and its impact on the transatlantic relations
  • June 16, 2022. By Al Jazeera. More than 100 million people have been forced to flee their homes due to conflict, climate change and persecution, according to a newly released global trends report by UNHCR. Visualising the fastest-growing refugee crises around the world
  • June 16, 2022. By UN News. A staggering 100 million people have now been forced to flee their homes globally, the UN refugee agency, UNHCR, said on Thursday, highlighting worldwide food insecurity, the climate crisis, war in Ukraine and other emergencies from Africa to Afghanistan as leading causes. More than 100 million now forcibly displaced: UNHCR report
  • June 16, 2022. By Oleg Barabanov, Valdai Discussion Club. The economic consequences of the events taking place after February 24, in our opinion, can be reduced to one simple formula: is sustainable globalisation possible without Russia? The question really is only whether Russia is such a large country, and its export resources so significant on a global scale, that excluding Russia will have irreversible consequences for the dynamics of globalisation as a whole. Globalisation Without Russia
  • June 16, 2022. By , Project-Syndicate, The Strategist. When Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered his invasion of Ukraine on 24 February, he envisaged a quick seizure of Kyiv and a change of government analogous to Soviet interventions in Budapest in 1956 and Prague in 1968. But it wasn’t to be. The war is still raging, and no one knows when or how it will end. What the invasion of Ukraine has revealed about the nature of modern warfare
  • June 16, 2022. By Vasily Kashin, East Asia Forum. The conflict in Ukraine will have major strategic consequences for Chinese foreign policy in the Indo-Pacific. It will promote the deepening of Russian–Chinese economic cooperation that will make both countries more resilient to Western economic pressure. Long-term instability in Europe will make it more difficult for the United States to boost its Pacific presence for years to come with significant US financial and military resources being drawn toward supporting Ukraine. Ukraine’s losses are China’s gains
  • June 16, 2022. By Al Jazeera. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has pushed global displacement numbers above 100 million for the first time, and the UN warns the resulting food crisis could force even more to flee their homes. War-fuelled food crisis to add to ‘staggering’ number displaced
  • June 15, 2022. By World Nuclear News. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) says it conducted more than 3000 in-field verification activities at more than 1300 nuclear facilities and locations, with more than 14,600 days in the field in 2021 – as well as 2135 additional days in the field spent in quarantine. IAEA says in-field verification back above pre-pandemic levels : Regulation & Safety
  • June 15, 2022. By Maysa Jalbout and Katy Bullard, Brookings. A recent meeting of an international group of education donors, hosted by the Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institution, confirmed that refugee education is top of mind for international aid agencies and foundations alike. This is perhaps not surprising given how the war on Ukraine has gripped the West’s attention and generated very generous support in the form of government aid packages, welcoming policies by nearby countries, and an unprecedented $1.4 billion in donations from the private sector as of early June, according to United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. But as organizations serving refugees know all too well, surges in financial support have a history of being short-lived and—even worse—amassing insufficient support. 5 priorities for funders to support in refugee education

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